15 Popular Binary Options Brokers of 2020: Which One Is

Addressing Canada’s Employment Insurance Gap For Self-Employed Workers

Source: TD
Ksenia Bushmeneva, Economist
Dated July 15th, 2020

Highlights


Chart 1 - Workers in More Precarious Employment See Steep Job Losses

Chart 2 - COVID-19 Self-employed to Cut Hours Worked Drastically

EI Leaves Many Non-Standard Workers Behind


Chart 3 - Self-employed Workers Much More Likely to Apply for CERB

Chart 4 - Prevalence of Self-employment Varies by Province

What Complicates Offering EI Coverage For Non-Standard Workers


Chart 5 - Maternity and Family Benefits Available to Self-employment

Chart 6 - Sickness, Disability, and Work Injury Coverage Available to Self-Employed

Some Solutions Based on The International Experience


Chart 7 - Unemployment Benefits Coverage Options to Self-employed

Chart 8 - Old-age Pensions Coverage Options Available to Self-employed

Concluding Remarks


References

  1. “Employment Insurance Coverage Survey, 2018”. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/191114/dq191114a-eng.htm
  2. Sunil Johal & Erich Hartmann. “Facilitating the Future of Work Through Modernizing EI System”. The Mowat Center. https://ppforum.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/PPF-Modernizing-EI-for-Future-of-Work-April-2019-EN.pdf
  3. Antonia Asenjo and Clemente Pignatti. “Unemployment insurance schemes around the world: Evidence and policy options.” International Labour Office. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---inst/documents/publication/wcms_723778.pdf
  4. Sung-Hee Jeon and Yuri Ostrovsky. “The impact of COVID-19 on the gig economy: Short- and long-term concerns”. Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/45-28-0001/2020001/article/00021-eng.pdf?st=x8kZDLV7
  5. Sunil Johal & Erich Hartmann. “Facilitating the Future of Work Through Modernizing EI System”. The Mowat Center. https://ppforum.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/PPF-Modernizing-EI-for-Future-of-Work-April-2019-EN.pdf Ibid.
  6. “Evaluation of the Employment Insurance Special Benefits for Self-employed Workers”. Employment and Social Development Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/corporate/reports/evaluations/2016-ei-special-benefits.html
  7. “The Future of Social Protection: what works for non-standard workers?” OECD. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/sites/9789264306943-en/1/2/1/index.html?itemId=/content/publication/9789264306943-en&_csp_=60072f6c81e5afb306d1ad580d284396&itemIGO=oecd&itemContentType=book#chapter-d1e549 Ibid.
  8. “Key Small Business Statistics - January 2019”. Statistics Canada. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/061.nsf/eng/h_03090.html#point1-3 Ibid.
  9. “Government Response To The Fifth Report Of The Standing Committee on The Status of Women. Interim Report on the Maternity and Parental Benefits Under Employment Insurance: the Exclusion of Self-Employed Workers.” https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentVieween/39-1/FEWO/report-5/response-8512-391-19
  10. “Evaluation of the Employment Insurance Special Benefits for Self-employed Workers”. Employment and Social Development Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social development/corporate/reports/evaluations/2016-ei-special-benefits.html

End Notes

  1. Since 2010 self-employed workers can voluntarily participate in EI Special Benefit for Self-Employed Workers (SBSE) to gain access to many life event-type benefits accessible to regular employees, such as maternity and paternity leave programs, leave due to sickness or to care for an sick family member. In addition to this, current EI system allows certain exceptions for some non-standard workers. For example some individuals who work independently as barbers, hairdressers, taxi drivers, drivers of other passenger vehicles are eligible to receive benefits through the regular EI program. Fishermen are also included as insured persons under the EI Fishing Regulations. In the case of the self- employed fishermen, EI qualification is tied to income. In order to qualify for up to 26 weeks of benefit, they need to have earned between $2,500 to $4,200 in the last 31 weeks.
  2. The two main reasons for not contributing to the EI program were not having worked in the previous 12 months, and non-insurable employment (which includes self-employment).
submitted by AwesomeMathUse to econmonitor [link] [comments]

Student Loan Default: The Guide (reuploaded)

The original guide that was recently deleted here: https://www.reddit.com/studentloandefaulters/comments/cg1fd7/student_loan_default_a_guide/
I take no credit for this post, just happened to have it saved in a document and thought I'd be doing an injustice by not sharing this information once I saw the original post was missing! All credit goes to the original author, and without further ado...

Student Loan Default: A Guide
I’ve been wanting to write this for a long time, and seeing that person be in $500,000 of debt and no one really helping him on studentloans, I felt it was time to summarize everything I’ve learned. While there is great information on this sub, it is not centralized. It requires some digging. I hope now to bring all of it to the surface.

Definitions:

Strategic Default: When a borrower realizes that he or she can spend less money by not paying a loan. The borrower waits out the statute of limitations and then either settles or waits the debt out.

Shills: People who are paid to prevent the spread of student loan default information

Statute of Limitations: The number of years your state requires before a debt can no longer be collected.

Cosigner: The poor person who is just as legally required to pay your loans as you are

Foreign Earned Income Tax Exclusion: A tax rule that states any US citizen can earn up to about $100,000 a year in another country and report their US taxes as 0.

Fraudulent Transfer: When a party tries to move assets to someone else in order to avoid a lien on their property.

Lien: Essentially when the government slaps a bill onto your property forcing you to pay off a debt before you can sell the property.

Income Based Repayment (IBR): Federal loans can be paid with 15% of your discretionary income (money earned after taxes) instead of a higher, unpayable amount

Aggregate Student Loan Limit: The total amount a student can take out before the federal government or a private lender stops authorizing new loans

Wage Garnishment: When a court forces your employer to take out a certain percentage of your paycheck to pay back a debt

Bank Levy: When the government or a court takes all of the money directly out of your bank account to pay a debt

Private Loans: Loans that originate from anyone but the federal government. These loans have a statute of limitations and less power but higher interest rates.

Federal Loans: These loans have no statute of limitations, the government can collect anything you earn to get these back, and they come with IBR which is manageable

Sallie Mae: The worst private lender on the market. They only offer deferment for four short years.

Forbearance: A period where you do not have to pay your student loans, but interest accrues.

Deferment: A period where you do not have to pay your student loans, but interest does not accrue.

Credit Score: A number that tells people how responsible of a borrower you are.

Student Loan Tax Bomb: After you have paid for 10 - 25 years on your federal loans, you are forgiven the rest. That is considered income by the IRS. You then add this “income” to your regular income for the year and pay the tax. It can be over $10,000.

Insolvency: When you are unable to pay your debts. This works well for defusing the student loan tax bomb.

Public Service Loan Forgiveness: If you work for 10 years at a government job, you can get your entire federal student loan balance forgiven. In 2019, the feds are making it near impossible to collect. This could change.

A note on cosigners before we begin: Look, your cosigner is probably going to be very mad at you. Prepare for your relationship to be strained. You need to try and get them on the same page as you, and I do offer a tactic here to at least shift all of the financial burden off of your cosigner below. If you decide to do any of these tactics without getting your cosigner off the hook, there could be more risk involved if you or your cosigners have a lot of assets.

Strategy

Student loan default is a strategy. And to have a good strategy, one must plan as much as possible. You have to know all of your options. While strategy is your overall game plan, tactics are the individual options you have to get your strategy accomplished. Below are the tactics that you can employ to beat the student loan companies.

Tactics

Paying Your Loans: [low risk] In the rare chance you have anywhere between $1,000 to $20,000 in federal student loans and you have completed your bachelor’s degree, you should probably just pay the damn loans. All you have to do is set up an auto debit and forget about it. It will be about 15% of your income. You really want to try and avoid consolidating if you can, because it will count against some of your IBR payments. You would also lose your grace period if you did this. At the end of 10 to 25 years, you will be forgiven all of the loan amount you did not pay. That forgiven amount is considered income by the IRS, so you will be put into a higher tax bracket. I would get an accountant when this comes. In your case, your tax bomb will be low enough where you could probably just pay it. If you want to really shake things up though, you are welcome to try either the Asset Creation Tactic or the Madlad Method below. Here is more information on Income Based Repayment: https://www.studentdebtrelief.us/repayment-plans/income-based-repayment-plan/

Default Private IBR Federal (Staying Put): [low risk] The standard strategy here on studentloandefaulters. As mentioned above, for the federal loans, it’s best to just IBR and automatically debit your bank account each month and forget about it. For the private loans, this is where the game begins. Your overall plan here is to default, wait out the statute of limitations in your home state, and either settle the debt for less than 30% or just hope they leave you alone and you don’t pay at all. From this moment on, whatever you would have paid for your private monthly bill, sock that money away. Once you go past 120 days of no payments, you are in default. This is where the phone calls come in. They will start to harass you. They will call your work, your cell phone, your cosigner, etc relentlessly. Most likely, they’ll start doing this before you get to default. As they call you, you can either just give them the cold shoulder or start immediately acting like you do not own the debt. Never admit that you own the debt. Tell them you think they are crazy and have the wrong person. Inform your cosigner to do the same. Once your loans are sold to a collection agency, wait until they call you and ask for verification of the debt. If they do not provide it, you won. Chances are, they will be able to verify it, so just make sure you never admit to the debt on the phone or make a payment. If you make a payment, you’ll reset the statute of limitations. Do not give them five dollars, two dollars, a penny. If they do sue you, show up for court. Get a lawyer if you can afford it. You have to show up to court, or they win automatically. Even if you don’t have a lawyer in court, you need to make them verify the debt. You could still lose here. If you do lose in court, go to my tactic of “The Cat and Mouse Game.” They are playing a numbers game, and if you are harder to sue than John Smith down the street, they may prey on him or her instead of you. Now, there are four states in the United States that do not have wage garnishment: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas. You could move there, and if you have barely any assets, you are considered judgement proof. This means you’re not worth the time to be sued, because you have nothing to take and cannot be garnished. Moving is hard, though, so that’s a personal decision. Also, from what I understand, if you do move to these states, you can switch your statute of limitations over to their states which may be less time until you cannot be sued anymore. If you do lose and just want to stop here, you could get your bank levied and you could be slapped with up to a 25% wage garnishment until paid in full Clarification: a lot of people do not ever get garnished, and bank levies are rare (they are non-existent on federal loans). Do not let this freak you out!. I repeat this is super rare and not likely to happen. Anyways, you have options at this point. If it does happen, try another tactic like leave the country or cat and mouse below.

Default Private Default Federal: [medium risk] Some of the wilder people have attempted to default on both federal and private loans in order to do a cash settlement. The same strategy above in Default Private IBR Federal applies, but realize that the US government could just step in and do an administrative garnish on you eventually. If you were living some sort of cash existence, you could potentially avoid them and then write them a money order and settle for 30% or something. This way, you avoid the tax bomb and would probably pay a lot less interest overall. If you do this and it works, I would love to hear about it.

Cat and Mouse: [medium risk] So, you want to avoid getting sued or you lost a judgement? You don’t have to sit back and take it. u/nowaysalliemae has successfully avoided being sued by essentially going on the run. You see, to be sued successfully, they need to know where you work. If you get sued, move to another state, and switch jobs, they have to do the entire process over again! This means find you, verify the debt, sue you, etc. You can essentially do this until your statute of limitations runs out. And then, you dispute the debt on your credit score. They take it off at that point, and you just saved a lot of money. I decided to put this as medium risk, because moving around a lot would require some luck. Especially since you would need to work wherever you go, there are a lot of moving parts here. I think it is totally doable, and if you are an adventurous personality type, it could be a lot of fun. This only works for the private student loan side, because the US government has a lot more power. You would still IBR your federal loans on this tactic. For more information, go through nowaysalliemae's post history.

Leave the Country: [medium risk] What if you want to avoid all of this altogether? Do you want a reset button on your life? You can just leave the country and start over. Seriously. Your credit score does not follow you across countries. The federal government cannot garnish your paycheck if you work internationally. You are not a criminal doing this. Furthermore, there is something called the Foreign Earned Income Tax Exclusion. Since you will still IBR your federal loans on this plan, as long as you make less than $100,000 in another country, your US income is zero. This means you just got a free education while you make money in another country. Once you pay zero for 25 years, you will have to defuse your student tax bomb. Tactic Below. Private companies do not stand a chance here. There are countries in the commonwealth such as Australia and Canada that are more willing to take you in if you meet certain requirements. You could teach English at a bunch of places. You could apply for residency at these places or be a perpetual tourist. A perpetual tourist is someone who essentially moves to a new country, goes to a neighboring country for a weekend, and then goes back to that new country they are trying to start a new life in*. This in no means you have to go back to the U.S. Ever. For example, you want to live in Panama forever, every 90 days, you take a weekend trip to Nicaragua. You come back to Panama after the weekend is over and get another 90 day pass. Rinse and repeat. This gives you another 90 days in your country of choice. If you make money on the internet, this strategy would work pretty well. You can just be a perpetual tourist or marry someone in another country and start a new life. This will not be a good fit for everyone, but there’s something exciting about this. If you are young, single, and restless, this could be the adventure of a lifetime. Here's more info on being a perpetual traveler and the FEIE: https://www.escapeartist.com/blog/perpetual-traveler-us-tax-code/

Suspend Payment Without More Debt: [low risk] So recently, it has been brought to my attention that there is a community college, Luna Community College (in Las Vegas, NM), that has tuition so low you could go half time all year for about 684 dollars. They have a small amount of associate's degrees. If you just want to stop paying without taking any more loans, this would be the way to do it. You could do this for many years. Luna Community College's tuition matrix: https://luna.edu/tuition_matrix

Convert Private Loans to Federal: [low risk] From this point on, these are my special tactics I’ve been thinking about. They might work really well for some people. So, you have a bunch of federal loans and a good amount of private loans. You don’t want to fight debt collectors or move around. Try this. This plan only works if you have a bachelor’s degree though. Anyways, there is a special loan offered by the US Federal Government called the Graduate Plus Loan. This loan is incredible, because there is no aggregate student loan limit. In other words, you can borrow as much money as you want here. Even a million dollars no questions asked. All you need is no delinquency or default on your credit report. If you do have these things, you can get a cosigner in on the plan. They won’t ever be responsible anyways because you will defuse the tax bomb at the end. This works to your advantage, because you could go back to school at the graduate level, get a diploma mill master’s degree online, use your room and board payment to start paying off your private loans ASAP. Just make sure you are doing whatever your school considers half time enrollment in order to avoid student loan payments while doing this. Once you’ve gone to school long enough and converted all of your private loans to grad plus loans, you could just go on an IBR plan. This will at least make your life manageable. You would have to defuse your student tax bomb once this is over. Tactic below.

Convert Federal Loans to Private: [medium risk] So, what if you wanted to go the opposite way? Maybe you want to convert all of your federal loans to private ones, default, and then leave the country? Hey, maybe there are reasons you want to hurry up the settlement process. You could essentially do the same strategy as above, but instead just borrow from Sallie Mae, Wells Fargo, etc until all of your federal loans are paid off. Then, either cat and mouse or leave the country. I don’t think a lot of people would find a use for this, but hey who knows?

Asset Creation Method: [high risk] What if you wanted to not just pay off your loans but get ahead in life? Maybe you feel like using your student loan debt to your advantage. Thanks to the work done by u/BinaryAlgorithm, you could really come out on top here. Remember those Grad Plus loans we were talking about? Well, there’s nothing stopping you from continually borrowing all year on these loans, investing the room and board, and acting as if you do not have the debt in the first place. While I had originally said that rental property does not count as income, I cannot find any documentation proving this. You can still invest this money however you want, and you just defuse the tax bomb at the end (if anyone can find that documentation, please let me know). I did find that rental properties offer a lot of ways to reduce your adjusted gross income (management fees, advertising, etc), and these could reduce your income closer to zero. We’re not done here. Moreover, you could get a job that qualifies for Public Student Loan Forgiveness, enjoy your investments, and then pay for the 10 years. Be sure to convert all loans to federal before starting this tactic. I only put this as high risk, because the whole plan falls apart if Grad Plus loans get capped. Will they? Probably not, because those are the loans doctors and lawyers take out to go to their professional schools. It would take an act of congress to change the way the law stands now, but still, you should know that. This plan spans decades, so a lot can change. Also, having this many installment loans may lower your credit score over a multitude of years, but based on what everyone has found out here, it's not by much. For more information, go to this subreddit's search bar and type in "aggregate" and go look at BinaryAlgorithm's two posts on the subject.

Defusing the Student Tax Bomb: [low risk] So lucky for you, I talked to an actual lawyer and an actual IRS agent about this. This is completely legal and doable. Okay, so you were a good person and paid your IBR for 25-30 years. What now? Well, you’re about to be hit hard with a tax bomb. All of that money that is now forgiven counts as income on your taxes. This could mean a bill in the tens of thousands if you combined this with any of the other methods here—or just borrowed a lot to begin with. Luckily for us, there is something called insolvency. This means you are unable to pay your debts, and there is a really simple formula for whether or not you are insolvent. As long as you have more liabilities than assets at the time of student loan forgiveness, you are considered insolvent. In other words, right before you are about to be forgiven, like year 24 out of 25, you would take out a loan on something. All you would need to do is buy a house, buy a car, or buy something with a huge price tag. As long as your liabilities are way higher than your assets (like aim for 100K or something more), you are considered insolvent and you don’t have to pay any of the tax bomb. Boom. The IRS agent said this is fine. The lawyer said this is fine. I cannot believe this is fine. Where could you get the money to borrow for a house? Check Asset Creation method above. You could always sell the asset after the tax bomb is dealt with. For more information on defusing the student loan tax bomb: https://lawyerist.com/defusing-student-loan-interest-tax-bomb/

Getting Your Cosigner Off the Hook: So 90% of us have cosigners based on some statistic I read. These people are going to pissed at you, because they get harassed. If you have a lot of time to plan your strategy out, you can simply convert all of your private loans to federal ones. They are no longer responsible. The plan is above. Check out “Convert Private Loans to Federal.” Furthermore, if you are attempting to go the default route with private loans, you could potentially get your cosigner off the hook by refinancing your student loans without the cosigner. After you refinance, you could just default then. You would need good credit and meet certain requirements for this. Also, if you plan on defaulting, you might want to get your cosigner to transfer their assets to their spouse or someone trustworthy. Even though liens are rare, this could give you some peace of mind. As long as about 3-5 years go by, this is no longer considered a fraudulent transfer. Your state will have certain rules about this. If you are from Florida, apparently houses are untouchable there. You will need a lawyer to plan the asset transfer. At the same time, you may not be able to get your cosigner off the hook. Make peace with that. Student loans are brutal, so all you can really do is educate yourself and your cosigner and hope you come out on top.

Madlad Method: [high risk] Now, here comes my personal plan. This is what I’m doing, because I want to live a life on my terms and not really work for anyone my entire life. I’m also not a normal person, so this will probably appear crazy to some or most of you. So at this point, if you understand all of the methods before you, you are a powerful player in the student loan circus. You can do anything from fight the man to maliciously comply and bankrupt the system while becoming upper-middle class. I don’t really care for any of that. I want to go to a tropical paradise and make music for 20 years, so here is my interpretation of everything. I have some federal loans and private loans. I net about 25K a year through the Grad Plus loans, and I work about 4 hours a week in the online classroom. I take that federal loan money, and I sock away a few hundred every month to save up for my private loan settlement in about five years. Since I save 300 every month, I’ll have about 18K in 5 years when I go into default. I will settle ASAP. At the same time, I will continue to go to diploma mill universities, get master's degree after master’s degree, and move to a Latin American country where the cost of living is even lower. This way, my 25K a year puts me in the upper class of that country. I can live where I want and really do whatever I damn well please for as long as the Grad Plus loans are around. As an added bonus, I will already be starting a new life in another country where I can make connections and maybe even get married. I studied linguistics, so I know how to teach English. I can do that if I want a source of income anywhere. So there is my plan, and honestly, one day we might get someone in office who just wipes out all of this debt anyways. If that’s the case, I can just play the waiting game until all of this is over. Here are the rules on adverse credit history and Grad Plus loans: https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/sites/default/files/plus-adverse-credit.pdf

Final Thoughts: Defaulting on student loans is not immoral or a sin. It is a business decision. Everyone else gets bailouts, why should student borrowers be any different? You’re going to have to ignore the people who tell you why they think you should be a good little slave and pay your loans. Those people are not your friends. Those people are not on your side. Some of the best advice I ever received in life was you have to do what’s best for you. Also, if you have anything you would like to add to this or would like to challenge, please let me know. I want this to be as accurate as possible. I will be looking at this perpetually to make sure there are no errors. Take care. Good luck. You can do this.
submitted by PlsvoteforBernie to studentloandefaulters [link] [comments]

Breakdown of Genderal Budget 2018

tldr; Marxist Gibs
In Budget 2018, no budget decision was taken without being informed by Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+).
What is GBA+?
GBA+ is an analytical tool used to assess how different groups of women, men and gender-diverse people may experience policies, programs and initiatives. The “plus“ acknowledges that GBA goes beyond biological (sex) and socio-cultural (gender) differences to consider intersecting factors such as race, ethnicity, age, disability and sexual orientation. GBA+ provides the foundation for gender budgeting—ensuring that the impacts of individual budget proposals on different groups of people are understood, supporting better policy-making, priority-setting and decision-making
...
Budget 2018 goes further, integrating considerations of gender impacts at each step of the budgeting process, and introducing a new Gender Results Framework. This Framework includes goals and indicators that will guide the Government’s decisions and measure Canada’s progress in achieving greater gender equality. And to ensure that gender remains a key consideration for future governments, the Government will introduce new GBA+ legislation to make gender budgeting a permanent part of the federal budget-making process
...
The Government will ask the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs to examine making it a requirement that when any Minister of Finance tables a Budget in the House of Commons, a GBA+ analysis of the budget documents must be tabled concurrently
...
To strengthen Canada’s ongoing capacity to apply the gender and diversity lens, the Government will make Status of Women Canada an official Department of the Government of Canada
Pay Gap
In Canada today, women earn 31 per cent less than men do. Put another way, the median income for women is $28,120, compared with $40,890 for men.
...
For every dollar of hourly wages a man working full-time earns in Canada, a woman working full-time earns about 88 cents.
...
Introducing historic pay equity legislation will give more Canadian women fair compensation for their hard work and will set the standard for how women’s work is valued in the workplace. The Government is proud to lead these efforts to reduce the gender wage gap.
...
The Government will bring in a legislated proactive pay equity regime in federally regulated sectors, which would apply to approximately 1.2 million employed individuals. This legislation would: Ensure that both wages and other benefits are evaluated in a gender-neutral way.
The Government will commit [3 million] over five years, starting in 2018–19, to implement pay transparency.
...
Repeal previous legislation such as the Public Sector Equitable Compensation Act which is inconsistent with the goal of pay equity
Women
When women come together, change happens Across the country, women’s organizations play an important role in raising social awareness and mobilizing communities to change laws, attitudes and social norms.
...
The most common scenario, however, involves the mother taking on the primary caregiving responsibilities once their child is born. both in the short term following the arrival of their child, and over the longer term, often due to the challenges of re-entering the workforce after time spent away.
...
To help more women entrepreneurs take their businesses to the next level, the Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC) launched a $50 million fund in 2016 to give women-led technology firms greater access to venture and growth capital—and based a highly promising pipeline, the fund was increased to $70 million in November 2017.
...
Recognizing that barriers to women’s labour market participation can be complex and slow to move, the Government will also host a major symposium on women and the workplace in the spring of 2019. The Government will provide $1.5 million over 2018–19 and 2019–20 for this symposium.
...
The BDC’s 2015 commitment to increase term lending to majority women-owned businesses to at least $700 million over three years has also been surpassed, and as of January 31, 2018, the BDC has lent $912 million to an additional 1,636 women-owned firms
...
To support more initiatives that build the capacity of equality-seeking organizations, reduce gender inequality in Canada, and promote a fairer and more productive society, the Government proposes to provide $100 million over five years to Status of Women Canada to enhance the Women’s Program. This investment will increase organizational and sector capacity on a needs basis, allowing organizations to participate in ongoing training, skills development and community engagement, while reducing competition among equality seeking organizations for funding. This investment will also ensure better funding for organizations focused on vulnerable women, including groups such as Indigenous women, women with disabilities, members of the LGBTQ2 communities, and newcomer and migrant women.
...
The Government proposes to provide Status of Women Canada with $1.3 million in 2018–19 to host a national roundtable on GBA+. The Government also proposes to provide Status of Women Canada with additional funding of up to $7.2 million over five years to lead a national conversation on gender equality with young Canadians
...
This pattern of women's underparticipation in higher-paid, maledominated trades has meant that women are not only comparatively underpaid in the trades sectors, but also wrongly perceived as uninterested in or incapable of pursuing careers in the higher-paid male-dominated fields.
...
The Government will provide $46 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, and $10 million per year thereafter, for the Pre-Apprenticeship Program. This program will encourage underrepresented groups—including but not limited to women, Indigenous Peoples, newcomers and persons with disabilities–to explore careers in the skilled trades.
...
Investments of more than $40 billion over the next 10 years will create over 100,000 new housing units and repair 300,000 housing units for Canadians. Moreover, at least 25 per cent of National Housing Strategy investments will support projects that specifically target the unique needs of women and girls, including senior women who are more likely than senior men to need affordable housing.
...
As part of the Government’s commitment to address gaps in gender and diversity data, the Government is also proposing to provide $1.5 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, and $0.2 million per year ongoing, to the Department of Finance Canada to work with Statistics Canada and Status of Women to develop a broader set of indicators and statistics to measure and track Canada’s progress on achieving shared growth and gender equality objectives.
...
the Government is allocating $19.9 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, to pilot an Apprenticeship Incentive Grant for Women. Under the Grant, women in male-dominated Red Seal trades would receive $3,000 for each of their first two years of training (up to $6,000). This, in combination with the existing Apprenticeship Completion Grant valued at $2,000, will result in a combined $8,000 in support over the course of their training for a female apprentice training to become a welder, machinist pipe fitter or any other skilled trade that is male-dominated.
...
To support greater gender equality in the home and in the workplace, the Government proposes to provide $1.2 billion over five years, starting in 2018–19, and $344.7 million per year thereafter, to introduce a new EI Parental Sharing Benefit. The Benefit will provide additional weeks of “use it or lose it” EI parental benefits, when both parents agree to share parental leave. This incentive is expected to be available starting June 2019
...
In Canada, fewer than one in six businesses (16 per cent) are majority-owned by women, and businesses owned by women tend to be smaller than businesses owned by men, although the difference varies by industry, according to the Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC) based on 2014 data from Statistics Canada. Women entrepreneurs face unique barriers in accessing capital, supply chains and export programs compared to their male counterparts. Women entrepreneurs may also have a harder time receiving training and finding mentorship. The Government believes that with greater support, women-led businesses could enter, compete and win on the world stage, boosting economic growth and creating more good, well-paying jobs here at home.
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Budget 2018 proposes to provide $105 million over five years to the regional development agencies to support investments in women-led businesses, of those SMEs who participate in federal procurement, 10 per cent are women-owned. The Government intends to introduce measures to increase this participation rate by 50 per cent (to at least 15 per cent), in order to reflect the current proportion of SMEs majority led by women entrepreneurs in the broader population. The Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC) will coordinate a series of boot camps across Canada for promising women entrepreneurs looking to start their business
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Budget 2018 proposes that the Government will invest $10 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, to connect women with expanded export services and opportunities through the Business Women in International Trade Program
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The Government will make available $1.4 billion over three years, starting in 2018–19, in new financing for women entrepreneurs through the BDC. This commitment is in addition to an increase to $200 million (from $70 million) for investments in women-led technology firms over five years through the BDC’s Women in Technology Fund
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the Government will make available $250 million over three years, starting in 2018–19, through Export Development Canada (EDC). As well, EDC will support the international success of women entrepreneurs by providing expert advice
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To support women entrepreneurs in agriculture, the Government will create and launch a new lending product in 2018–19 designed specifically for women entrepreneurs through Farm Credit Canada.
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The Government is committed both to improving the representation of women among venture capital firm managers, and to ensuring venture capital funds are investing in Canada’s promising women-owned firms.
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The Government’s Venture Capital Catalyst Initiative, launched in December 2017 with the goal of injecting up to $1.5 billion into Canada’s venture capital market, includes a strong focus on gender balance and diversity. All proposals submitted under the Initiative are expected to demonstrate how they will improve gender representation among venture capital fund managers and portfolio companies, and will be assessed on this basis.
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Budget 2018 announces that the Government’s coming reform to federal innovation programs will include a universal goal to improve the participation of underrepresented groups, including women entrepreneurs, in the innovation economy
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To accelerate the accumulation and dissemination of knowledge, data and best practices for women entrepreneurs, the Government will make available $9.5 million over three years to support third-party proposals through a competitive process, to be administered by Innovation, Science and Economic Development.
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one third of Canadian men and one-sixth of Canadian women regularly participated in sport. Men are also approximately two to three times more likely to be coaches, officials or in other leadership positions than women. This is why through Budget 2018, the Government is setting a target to achieve gender equality in sport at every level by 2035, and proposes to provide an initial $30 million over three years to support data and research and innovative practices to promote women and girls’ participation in sport, and provide support to national sports organizations to promote the greater inclusion of women and girls in all facets of sport.
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$77.5 million over five years, and $16 million per year ongoing, to Status of Women Canada for a Gender-Based Violence Knowledge Centre, data collection and research, and programming;
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$9.5 million over five years, and $2 million per year ongoing, to the Public Health Agency of Canada to support implementing and testing ways to prevent gender-based violence, including child maltreatme
Men
Gender equality is not just about women and girls. That is why the Government of Canada will introduce a strategy focused on men and boys. The Government will provide $1.8 million over two years to Status of Women Canada to develop an engagement strategy for men and boys that promotes equality and pilots innovative, targeted approaches to addressing inequality.
D I V E R S I T Y
Diversity is Canada’s strength and a cornerstone of Canadian identity. Recent domestic and international events, like the rise of ultranationalist movements, and protests against immigration,
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ex. Story: Fawzia immigrated to Canada in 2009 from Somalia, where she was a practicing gynecologist/obstetrician. After spending a year attempting to get recertified to practice medicine in Canada, she decided to volunteer at a local hospital, where she spends her time helping escort patients between departments. She loves being back in a hospital setting but misses being able to care for her own patients one-on-one, and worries about losing the practical skills that are an important part of her profession.
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The Government of Canada intends to address gaps in gathering data and to better use data related to gender and diversity. This includes proposing $6.7 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, and $0.6 million per year ongoing, for Statistics Canada to create a new Centre for Gender, Diversity and Inclusion Statistics.
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Budget 2018 also proposes to provide $5 million per year to Status of Women Canada to undertake research and data collection in support of the Government’s Gender Results Framework. One of the first projects this would support is an analysis of the unique challenges visible minority and newcomer women face in finding employment in science, technology engineering and mathematics occupations
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The Government will launch a three-year pilot to support programming for newcomer women who are also members of visible minorities and provide $31.8 million over three years starting in 2018–19.
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Budget 2018 proposes a new investment of $210 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, with $50 million per year ongoing, for the Canada Research Chairs Program. The purpose of this investment will be to better support early-career researchers, while increasing diversity among nominated researchers, including increasing the number of women who are nominated for Canada Research Chairs
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As the National Research Council re-imagines itself to deliver on the Innovation and Skills Plan, it will be taking targeted action to include more women, youth, Indigenous Peoples, persons with disabilities and visible minorities among its researchers. Targeted actions include ensuring there are no unintended barriers to the participation of women researchers and entrepreneurs in the National Research Council’s programs, as well as increased outreach to diverse groups of Canadians so they are fully aware of its programs and the opportunity to participate. The government proposes to provide $540 million over five years, starting in 2018–19, and $108 million annually for measures that will reinforce its research strengths and role as a trusted collaboration partner of industry.
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legislation recently introduced in Parliament by the Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development proposes amendments to the Canada Business Corporations Act that would require federally incorporated corporations to make annual disclosures to shareholders regarding the diversity of their senior management teams and boards of directors.
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the Government will further support corporate inclusion by publicly recognizing corporations that are committed to promoting women, including minority women, to senior management positions and boards of directors. In partnership with the private sector, the Government will create an annual award for Canadian corporations showing leadership in this area.
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Canada's Start-up Visa Program provides permanent resident immigration status to innovative global entrepreneurs with the potential to grow their companies in Canada. Budget 2018 proposes to provide $4.6 million over five years, beginning in 2018–19, and $0.8 million per year ongoing, to enhance the Start-up Visa client-service experience by ensuring applicants, private sector partners and immigration officials are able to process applications electronically and more efficiently
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As a first step toward recognizing the significant and unique challenges faced by Black Canadians, the Government also proposes to provide $19 million over five years that will be targeted to enhance local community supports for youth at risk and to develop research in support of more culturally focused mental health programs in the Black Canadian community.
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the Government is committed to increase the disaggregation of various data sets by race. This will help governments and service providers better understand the intersectional dimensions of major issues, with a particular focus on the experience of Black Canadians
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In order to obtain more inclusive data on sex and gender, Statistics Canada officials have been working with LGBTQ2 organizations to adjust Census of Population questions and response options to better reflect how people identify themselves, for example, by allowing respondents to answer in a non-binary fashion. This will provide critical information to help understand and meet the needs of LGBTQ2 Canadians.
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$1.5 million over five years to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada to enhance the Settlement Program.
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$2.4 million over five years, and $0.6 million per year ongoing, to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for cultural competency training for federal law enforcement officers;
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the Government proposes to provide $173.2 million to support security operations at the Canada-U.S. border and the processing of asylum claimants arriving in 2018–19. Funding would be used to manage the increased number of people seeking asylum in Canada this year, many of whom arrive with their families seeking quick, safe and compassionate processing.
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The Government proposes to provide $194.1 million over five years, beginning in 2018–19, and $33.19 million per year ongoing, to ensure the rights of temporary foreign workers in Canada are protected and enforced through a robust compliance regime.
Reconciliation
The Government proposes to invest an additional $5 billion over five years to ensure that Indigenous children and families have an equal chance to succeed in life, to build the capacity of Indigenous governments, and to accelerate self-determination and selfgovernment agreements with Indigenous Peoples based on the recognition and implementation of rights.
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the Government of Canada will be moving away from the use of loans to fund Indigenous participation in the negotiation of modern treaties. Starting in 2018–19, Indigenous participation in modern treaty negotiations will be funded through non-repayable contributions.
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The Government will engage with affected Indigenous groups on how best to address past and present negotiation loans, including forgiveness of loans.
International Feminism
The Government released its Feminist International Assistance Policy, focusing on six interlinked areas: gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, human dignity, peace and security, inclusive governance, environment and climate action, and growth that works for everyone.
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The Government proposes to provide an additional $2 billion over five years, starting in 2018–19, to the International Assistance Envelope.
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In support of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Feminist International Assistance Policy puts women and girls at the centre of its plan as agents of positive change for their families, communities and countries. Gender equality will be a focus of all of Canada’s international assistance investments to address economic, political and social inequalities that prevent individuals from reaching their full potential
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$180 million over three years for the Global Partnership for Education to support girls’ education and help strengthen education systems in developing countries.
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$15 million over four years to Marie Stopes Tanzania to provide girls and women with improved access to family planning information and services.
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$6 million to designated United Nations missions to improve their ability to support and benefit women’s increased participation in peace operations.
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$15 million to launch a global fund to support the deployment of women peacekeepers.
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Strengthen its focus on sexual and reproductive health and rights by doubling its commitment to $650 million over the next three years.
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the Government proposes to provide $1.5 billion over five years, starting in 2018– 19, on a cash basis ($553 million on an accrual basis), and $492.7 million per year thereafter, from existing unallocated International Assistance Envelope resources
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95 per cent of Canada’s bilateral international development assistance will either target or integrate gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls by 2021–22.
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Half of the world’s 22.5 million refugee population is made up of women and girls, making this population a significant segment of those fleeing war,
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the Government commits to increase the number of vulnerable refugee women and girls to be resettled in Canada as government-assisted refugees. Specifically, Budget 2018 proposes funding of $20.3 million over five years, beginning in 2018–19, to welcome an extra 1,000 refugee women and girls from various conflict zones around the world.
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Non Citizen Gibs
[24 Billion Per Year] The CCB has been supporting more than 3.3 million families with children, putting almost $2 billion each month, tax-free, into the bank accounts of families who need it most.
Who is eligible for Canada Child Benefit?
You or your spouse or common-law partner must be:
submitted by AnonUrban2 to metacanada [link] [comments]

[CiV VI] I've compiled my Ideas, and many of those I found throughout the sub, to create the ultimate Civ VI wishlist!

I appologize in advance as this post is offensively long. I mean, it's 5000 words with no TL:DR, so abandon all hope all ye who enter. I believe it covers all of the most common suggestions, and I've tried to make it all a little bit more out-there for the sake of flavour, but alas, please roast me merrily and have a lively discussion in the comments! Without further ado...
Musings; Ultimate edition
Tile Improvements
Transport
-4 Transport Improvements; Road, Railway, Highway and Maglev. These all have some difference in kind.
-Roads are the cheapest and the lowest tech, working much as they do in Civ V, but boosting yield on some adjacent improvements such as trading posts/towns.
-Railways have a limit on their distance from cities; about 5 tiles in the industrial era, increasing to 7 in the modern. This forces players to build cities closer together, and build the correct improvements, but railway benefits scale with population and aren't usable by enemy combatants.
-Highways work like a straight upgrade of roads, except they allow cities within 5 tiles along a highway to pool food and production yields, but produces 'pollution', which reduces "health".
-Maglev is a funky one for tech focused Civilizations. A maglev network connecting cities, irrespective of length, pools population(citizens available to work buildings), pools production and boosts science yield in both cities by ~30%, but otherwise functions like an expensive railway. Costs "energy" as well as about 4 gold per turn per tile.
-Rivers work like roads, but with no maintenance and provide gold. Great rivers allow ships to sail through. Workers can eventually dig canals which act as artificial great rivers, and tunnels can be bored through mountains through which Railways, Highways and Maglev can travel.
-Le Mountain Tunnels and pontoon bridges/undersea tunnels.
Yield Improvements
-Farms, Wells, Mines, Lumber mills, Plantations, Pastures, Camps and Quarries all work much the same as before, however Mines, Wells and Quarries produce 'pollution' as well as production.
-Windmills and Watermills(by rivers), which can be built on top of Farms and Plantations, provide a small yield of production at no 'pollution' cost. Upon research of "Electricity", they produce an "energy" yield.
-Once "Mechanization" technology is researched, the citizen assigned to a farm or plantation can be replaced with "energy" from appropriate buildings and improvements. The same is true for Mines, Wells and Quarries upon researching "Automation".
-Wells can be built to provide adjacent tiles with fresh water.
-Cottages double gold yield from surrounding tiles, provide 1 gold themselves. +1 gold with "Economics". Grow into Villages and then Towns which provide 3 gold base, 1 science, 1 production and 1 "energy", reduce crime and increase health.
Strategic/Military Improvements
-Forts can't be entered by enemy units without attacking. Area around forts are considered area of control, and give a land claim for a casus belli. Can upgrade to a military base, giving it an aircraft capacity and healing adjacent friendly units.
-Add sentry turrets, which are effectively stationary units which can attack enemy units. Available on Ballistics, can upgrade on Robotics to attack autonomously, Rocketry to be able to fire rockets to destroy tanks.
-Can build walls which provide a combat bonus to units inside, and drain movement points, as well as "outposts" which heal units in adjacent tiles.
-Some units can build trenches and lay mines(requires "Gunpowder") which provide a defensive bonus/act as traps.
Cities and Colonies
-Global happiness replaced with city level "health" and "stability", which affect growth, "bandit" spawn rates and likelihood of rebellions. A city with very low/negative health has a chance of spawning a plague, which behaves almost like a Civ V religion, spreading to other cities via pressure from proximity and trade routes, however plagues can also infect units adjacent to an infected city, which can then infect other cities and units and so on and so forth. Stability is reduced the greater the minimum travel time from the capital to that city.
-Workers can build districts adjacent to the original cities, which act as an extension of the city, reducing "crime", increasing "health", as well as allowing that city to build contextual buildings and units of the suburb's tile. If the population of a city grows too large without extra districts then 'health' and 'stability' decreases, spawning "slums" which in turn spawn bandits. The district can be specialized to be a stability boosting suburbs, health boosting parks, production boosting fabrics/shipyards, money boosting financial districts, culture boosting theatre districts, science boosting science parks and (upon researching hydroponics) food boosting vertical farms. If you play it smart, you can build 10 tile, 100+ pop megapoli by the end of the game.
-From the renaissance era, 'colonists' (super-fast, cheap settlers) can found "colonies" as well. Colonies increase cost of techs and policies by ~75% less than normal cities and grow twice as fast, but have much less defence. They can't (initially) build any buildings, nor build units with production, but can spawn militiamen and mercenaries. All of their production goes into "levelling-up" the colony, from 0 up to 20~25, having at around level 15 the option to turn it into a proper city. At each level you are presented with a "random" dynamic event and options on how to handle it; the options you choose affect the direction your colony takes and the characteristics it has. For example; "Catholic refugees fleeing the Malian inquisition are huddled outside the gates, what is our course of action? Do we; let them in (+1 population, -1 health, +2 diplomacy FP), turn them away (-1 diplomacy FP, +2 food), or offer them refuge in exchange for military service (+1 military FP, a maintenance free unit appears, -1 food). By level 25, 25 of these decisions could have been made, and the colony would have an array of special attributes. But high level colonies would carry a large risk of spawning rebel units, so it's worth converting them to cities (which start with an array of buildings) anyway.
Diplomacy
-Casus Belli system; common complaint, common answer. Appropriate and adapt from paradox games. Potential cases include land claim (using forts and spies), espionage offence, liberation (low approval), holy war, ideological conflicts, imperial conquest, resource acquisition, diplomatic offence et cetera. All of these will reduce warmonger penalties with certain Civs for certain actions but aren't a get away with murder card.
-Ultimata; Currently, there is no facility to threaten other civilizations. Ultimata remedy this and work thus; I demand something from another Civ in exchange for NOT declaring war. If they refuse the I automatically declare war on the next turn.
-A focus points system. Civ actions, such as War, Threats, Wonders, Technologies, Trades, Quests and Civics earn focus points in Science, Economy, Religion, Culture, Military or Diplomacy; These give diplomacy bonuses, allow access to special quests, and allow special actions.
-Taunt leaders back. This can give focus points.
-7 types of non Civ actors; City-States, Nations, Tribes, Corporations(get to that later), Rebels(Specific-Hostile) and "Barbarians/Bandits"(Hostile).
-City-States work much like they do in 5, except gold gifts are worth much less, and special quests and focus points are worth much more, and influence is instead 'spent' in order to gain things like world congress votes. Any allied city state can eventually be incorporated fully as a city. Eg. Florence, Milan, Singapore, Monaco, Malta, Honkers, Samarqand, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ife, Great Zimbabwe, Mombasa, Zanzibar etc. Limited to ~9 tiles.
-Nations are like stripped down Civilizations; a halfway house between city states and full blown Civs. Limited to 4 cities, which must be contiguous, they offer a medium for proxy wars, advanced diplomacy, breakaway states and buffer states. They also conveniently add filler to the map, and can represent small or "failed" nations. eg. Scotland, Texas, California, Belgium, Wallachia, Aragon, Manchuria, New Zealand etc.
-Tribes are an overhaul of Barbarians; Instead of automatically hostile units spawning from encampments, tribes act sort of like city states with no cities. They have territory, in which they have villages which occasionally spawn primitive military units and only primitive military units. There are no penalties for entering tribal territory as long as you aren't seen by any units, and you can even settle on top of their land. However, within these lies a moral choice; do you overpower tribes and take their land or try and bargain with and incorporate them peacefully?
-Rebels are units which spawn in cities with a low 'stability' stat, and are always hostile to the Civ in which they are spawned. The 'strife' can be increased by enemy spies, ideology, large numbers of unemployed citizens and lack of gold/science buildings. If rebels capture a city, then they make a new 'Nation' or city state which can be bargained with like any other.
-"Bandits" are the new Barbs, but as well as spawning in encampments they spawn in slums in civilized territory in response to overcrowding. They are more money focused in that any tile with a bandit unit on it yields negative gold per turn, and will set up their own improvements such as traps and dens. Can perhaps change name based on era and context (eg. Barbarian, Bandit, Pirate, Terrorist, Savage, Gangster, Mobster, Highwaymen etc).Their spawn rate inside Civs is reduced by presence of police buildings.
-InfoAddict style information screens. Graphs for days! Also displayed are opinion modifiers, and the factors determining whether a Civ will accept any particular deal. Less hidden mechanics.
-Ideology has more impact on diplomacy, with significantly different mechanics associated with each (get to that later), and being an extremely significant maker and breaker of relationships.
-Add Chemical, Biological and Radiological weapons which carry a very significant diplomacy penalty, along with nukes.
-One can choose to disobey resolutions or leave the world congress, incurring a large diplomatic penalty.
-Establish pacts with nations and city states.
-Can buy tiles from other actors.
Tech
-A less linear tech tree, starting off with a "core" set of techs arranged as they are but with cul-de-sac "branches" coming out of later eras, offering interesting technologies; broadly on spectrum from futuristic to retro-futuristic. The techs that all players need would all be in the core so they didn't have to specialize too much, but there would necessarily be a lot more techs. The ones further out on branches would only really useful for players either aiming for a Science victory or aiming for a specific bonus.
-Civs are able to divide research, researching multiple techs at the same time, utilizing special specialists (heh) called scientists. Much like trade routes in BNW, each era would allow a certain base number of scientists, and then things such as wonders, city states, research agreements, social policies and such would add on to that. Scientists would each be able to research one tech at a time, but multiple scientists (up to -3~4) could be set to research the same tech at an accelerated rate. The rate at which scientists could research stuff will depend on several factors. Each could utilize the entire Civ's global science output, in addition to their home cities' science output and more beakers proportional to extra allocated gold. Scientists would be based in a specific city, and would use up ~3 food, ~3 base gold, and require certain buildings to be able to research techs at certain levels; Libraries for anything beyond the Ancient Era, A University for anything beyond Medieval, A Laboratory for anything beyond Industrial and so on. It would be most efficient to put lots in your capital, but you wouldn't necessarily have the food to do this. Having lots of extra scientists would not be worth the effort if you don't want to have a science victory, and having lots impairs your Civ in other ways. This is an effective nerf to tech, which otherwise is inherently OP.
-New science buildings, such as Particle Accelerators, University Hospitals, Pharmacy-labs, Space-centres and the such in the late game. These would allow new lines of the tech tree, as well as providing bucket-loads of science, for a high price.
-'Rationalism' perhaps split into two different policy branches, Rationalism and Ingenuity. Rationalism is best for tall/tech defence, augmenting the ability of cities to make and use science. Ingenuity best for wide, improving use of strategic resources and reverse engineering other Civs tech i.e. tech offense.
-Research agreements allow one Civ greatly accelerated research into techs already researched by the other Civ, and a boost in global science output equal to that of the smaller Civ, and a two-for-one (maintenance wise) on two of their own scientist. When the agreement ends both players get a one-time tech boost.
-High level spies can be used to take enemy scientists during a time of war.
-Being allied with city states and minor nations allows you to initiate research agreements with them free of gold charge.
-11/12 eras: Ancient, Archaic?? , Classical, Medieval, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Industrial, Modern, Atomic, Information, Genetic/Space and Synthetic eras. Science and Diplomacy win in Synthetic. Cultural in Genetic at earliest. Domination is Domination.
-Revamped Science Victory. Perhaps, Instead of building a spaceship using Information era tech, you have to do special quests. Maybe upon researching a tech in the core of the Renaissance or the Enlightenment , you are alerted to the presence of a special quest for you to follow, and that other such quests are available upon researching specific technologies, which are located far out in the branches of subsequent eras, where non-science Civs daren't tread. The quests could range from "complete this national wonder", to "City state X has this item, acquire by any means necessary", to "Conduct a special research mission at X location". These quests would give special rewards, but would also give you items (all of which) you need to complete the science victory, possibly with an interstellar mission, maybe first contact, possibly artificial intelligence, I don't know. Stick with tradition; an interstellar mission.
-More rubber banding in tech. "Core" technologies that have already been discovered by a met civilization will take ~40% less time to research, and units have a chance of "discovering" a technology when killing advanced enemy units or taking the city of a technologically superior foe.
Late Game Horrors
-Endgame apocalypse scenarios. In the late atomic era players would be notified of the possibility of a coming endgame scenario. There would be a set number of scenarios that would be presented, each with a different probability of advancing. The scenarios would begin at the start of the Information era and progress through different levels of increasingly severe effects. There would be runaway global warming with rising sea levels, desertification, flooding and such the like. A new ice age with falling sea levels, glaciations, deforestation, ecological collapse and so on. Then there could be Atmospheric Toxicity with algae blooms, poison winds, ozone holes and other ghastly stuff. Players can then either concentrate efforts to reverse the cataclysm, to the joy of weaker Civs and nations; or simply withstand it, much to the dismay of those you could help, using dome cities and similar. Perhaps persuading other Civilizations, Nations and City States to unite in efforts to prevent the cataclysm could become the new diplomatic victory. Beats buying city states.
-Nukes become far more terrifying. Each nuke deployed would advance the endgame scenario significantly. To add to this, one nuke hit would turn any city district into a "Nuclear ruins" which spawns special Barbarian units called "Antmen", which drain health of all adjacent units and city districts. Fallout would prevent any food yield and pillage all tiles affected. Some splotches of fallout may end up all over the world in random places.
-Nukes could be set to Dead Man's switch, meaning any nuclear attack on that Civilization would cause any nukes set to dead man's switch to fire at the belligerent's cities
Civics and Social Policies
-Add the quest system from IV and BE, as well as the quest decisions and such from the above two games and a splash of random event decisions from paradox.
-In addition to Social Policies like in Civ V, have Civics which are a set of Binary choices taken ~2 times per era. These would be things like: Collectivism versus Individualism and Citizen Army (low maintenance) versus Mercenary (low production) in the early game, and Religious School versus Secular School in the late era, for example. These are the things ingrained into your Civ's culture.
-Civs are given a "home turf" bonus depending on the terrain they spawn in. A Civ that spawns with more than 12 hills or desert tiles etc. within 3 tiles of the capital will gain a combat bonus and yield boosts relevant to that terrain type.
-Ideologies, like those in BNW, stay, along with their "tenets". However, a new layer is added; "Internal Diplomacy" including an 'Election/Party' system for freedom, a 'Soviet' system for order and a 'Faction' system for autocracy.
-In Civs following freedom, every few turns there would be an "Election" which would give 3 different parties, loosely modeled around Traditionalists/Conservatives, Liberals and Populists/Socialists, a certain amount of weighting/representation. Any particular action would have a certain approval with each party, and total approval (from all parties) gives bonuses or penalties. If total approval is at +80 then you are effectively in a mini Golden age. Less than -50 then you face civil disobedience and mass protest. For example, if you want to raise taxes, a large number of "traditionalists/conservatives" will make you pay, while a large number of "populists/socialists" will cheer you along. The representation of each party is dependent on several factors; large numbers of faith buildings and religious followers will help "traditionalism", culture buildings and high GPT would boost "liberalism", lots of factories or poor GPT helps "populism/socialism", gold buildings reduce "populism/socialism", and a Random Number Generator throws a boon to anyone going every few turns when there's an "election". The weighting of the RNG also throws back to the civics/social policies one takes in the early game; tradition helps traditionalists, liberty helps liberals and so on. Other social policies may change the Parties' opinions on certain actions; honour, for example, reduces opposition to war.
-Order Civs have three 'soviets' in place of parties; Industrial workers (hammer), Agrarian Peasants (sickle) and Intellectuals (pen). Any action you take will reduce or increase "contentment" of each 'soviet'. Contentment of peasants affects food/growth, Industrial affects production/gold, and Intellectual affects science/culture. There are no 'elections' as with freedom, but weighting of the three soviets will depend on the amount of farms, factories and universities; if you don't have any farmers on the land you don't have to pander so much. Every ~10 turns, each soviet will set a quest (5-year-plan) such as: build a university in every city of population >6, secure a source of 6 unique luxuries, gain 10 population in X city and so on. Fulfilling these objectives will gain a boost to yields relevant to the soviet, as well as a quest decision, whilst their contentment will decrease if you fail the objective. Whilst at war these objectives are suspended. If you consistently succeed, gaining contentment and Great person points, then you get special great people called "Stakhanovites". Peasant Stakhanovites can found "ration" districts which expand the closest cities workable radius by one tile around them and boost growth by ~35%. Worker Stakhanovites can found "studio" districts which produce 10 hammers and increase build rate off units or buildings by 30%, and Intellectual Stakhanovites can produce a "Institute" district which boosts city science by 50% and culture by 40%, and gives a free scientist. They can also be expended to found a city with a full suite of growth, production or science buildings, or can found 'Order' corporations. Using Stakhanovites gives massive boosts to tourism, stability and "contentment" of the soviets.
-Autocracy Civs instead must accommodate three 'factions'; the Generals, the Oligarchs and the Ministry. This, necessarily, is quite different to the others. The Generals become restless after long periods of peace, potentially sparking rebellions and mutiny, and so Autocratic states must be at war regularly or else the generals will reduce production, stability and culture. If one fails to acquire new resources and expand gold yields then gold, science and health are massively reduced. The Ministry is responsible for counter intelligence success and food yields, and failing to chastise offending civilizations and build new units causes growth to stunt, stability to decrease and spies to begin leveling down. Autocracy Civs can however by default work a greater radius around their cities, have no penalty for annexing territory, and get replacement workers called Labour Fronts which are quicker, pay no unit maintenance and can fight as a melee unit if enemy soldiers are within the Civ's territory. These are earned through keeping the ministry happy, along with bonuses to great people generation and shorter periods of resistance in captured cities. Keeping the generals happy provides combat bonuses, as well as increased stability and spawning of "Troopers" which are up to date military units free of maintenance with a combat bonus against rebels, enemy units in friendly territory, and units belonging to Nations and City States. Keeping the oligarchy happy will result in the spawn of Autocratic Corporations, and will give conquered cities free gold buildings.
Corporations
-Corporations behave like little city states (with no territory or cities), and can undertake many different projects with you. Depending on the corporation, they may be able to research technologies which you can then use, build buildings in your cities (some of which are unobtainable any other way), build and maintain improvements (some of which, again, are unique to corporations), spawn unique great people, field a private military/security force to use against barbarians, man culture buildings, establish trade routes and practically anything else. There are several types; tech-based corporations which help with science and give scientists, entertainment/travel corporations which help with culture and tourism, manufacturers which boost production etc. The catch is that you must attract corporations to set up in your cities by following policies which are friendly to them (low taxes) and having buildings and improvements which help them, such as banks and stock exchanges. Tech corporations want universities and labs, Pharmaceutical corporations want lots of unimproved tiles (especially jungle). Trade agreements and diplomacy also attract corporations and allow corporations to operate in multiple Civs to share luxuries, gold, science and culture; however the majority of the benefits go to the Civ with the corporate headquarters. Of course, different ideologies and tenets will be able to reap the benefits of corporations more efficiently. Freedom Civs are the natural choice for taking advantage of corporations, whilst Order Civs have a much harder time; they can only gain their own corporations using special great people. The rough order is; Freedom (Optimal), Freedom, Order (Optimal), Autocracy (Optimal), Autocracy, Order. With the right tenets, Order is decent for Corporations (China), whereas Autocracy locks you in to a kind of Autarky, whereby corporations are nigh impossible to attract if not created by Oligarchs.
Gameplay Tweaks
-Maps are largetiles are smaller; allow Civs to build extremely dense populations without feeling cramped. Countries such as the Netherlands, or England, if put directly into Civ V would effectively be 10 tiles of nothing but cities.
-The vast number of notifications you get when it comes to the late game would be condensed into a "newspaper" which can be opened up and browsed for updates, rather than crowding your screen. Stories could be things like: "Owing to brilliant contributions to the research of Theology, Gottfried Leibniz has emerged as one of Medieval America's greatest Scientists!" and "King Alexander of Greece has completed the construction of his great Porcelain Tower!".
-Ranged Units, Civilian Units, Infantry Units and Cavalry/Siege Units can fit on different "layers" in each tile. Each unit more than the 1st uses 1 food. If they consume more food than the tile can provide, and they are outside the workable radius of a non-starving friendly city, then they suffer attrition damage.
-Addition of more Biomes. Gameplay-wise, there would only be the usual terrain types. However, some forests may appear as bamboo forests, some marshes as swamps or fens, some deserts have red sand and cacti etc.
-Upgrade route for Scouts, going to Explorers and Recon units, as well as Snipers. Along with this: more customizability, and take out the "Great War" units, or put them earlier. Replace them with cold war era units, like Vulcan bombers, MIGs, "Choppers" etc.
-Allow helicopter units to land between turns, allowing them to "refuel". Also allow air unit's like bombers to conduct a "Hail Mary", doubling range and damage but destroying the unit, with a chance of recovering the "pilots" for quicker replacement.
-Incorporate the quest system/binary choices into religion: poly vs monotheistic etc. Just more customization in general. Allow cults to be founded with leftover beliefs once at the enlightenment era.
Espionage (Shout-out to litriod)
-If you put a "spy" into one of your own cities, they become an Agent, which work much like Civ V spies who are set to Counter-Intelligence. They will hunt foreign Spies in the city you send them to, but they won't necessarily kill them when they find them. Instead you are given several actions to choose from; Kill the Spy and send them back to their homeland as a warning, resulting in their leader disliking you, but other nations will then dislike them for spying on people. You can also send them home unharmed, and chastise their government for spying on you making the other Civ like you more for sparing their spy, but they'll send more your way in the future. Or you could allow the Spy to continue their job, with a catch; The Spy's government must pay you gold, you gain some of their intelligence, but the Spy will continue Spying on your people, and your Agent will not level up from the incident.
-When you place a spy to a Friendly Civ's city, they become a Diplomat. Diplomats aren't hidden like Spies, and the foreign government always knows their location. Diplomats give you the ability to see all of the territory owned by the city they're in, not just the two rings around the city. Diplomats will also receive information from officials about events in their empire, working like the Spy's surveillance ability. However, the foreign officials won't give you unlimited Intel, and will inform you if they're plotting against you. Diplomats can allow you to trade World Congress votes with the nation in which they're operating, and each Diplomat you field will give you 1 bonus vote in the World Congress. When war is declared on the civilization housing the diplomat, they may be killed in the crossfire, and your Diplomats are at constant risk of assassination.
-Spies placed in a Neutral Civilization's city become, well, Spies. Spies work much as they currently do: they do shady things under cover, and they risk getting caught and treated by the other player much as you could've treated theirs, but you can of course sacrifice your spy and not pay the tribute if they offer you such. Spies retain their previous abilities: stealing tech and surveillance, but also gain three new abilities; Assassination Sabotage and encouraging rebellion. Spies sent on assassination missions can kill Diplomats from other Civs. If you pull this off their home Civ will blame the civilization in which they had a diplomat, and if there are already tensions building this could start a war. Assassination is a dangerous business though, and you could fail in one of two ways. Either your spy could get caught, making both Civs distrust you, or your spy could fail to properly frame the host Civ, alerting both Civs to a plot but not telling them who by. After a successful or botched assassination, your Spy will flee the city to the Hideout for a turn or two. The second new ability is sabotage, which, if successful, delays that Civs current construction project for 2 turns. The third special ability of the Spy allows you to decease stability and increase the chance of a rebellion, requiring a decent amount of gold to send to the rebels, with greater amounts increasing rebellion chance. If they actually spawn, or are there already, you can still spend money to better equip the rebel units. All this can be a tad awkward if you are caught.
-"Spies" in cities of Guarded or Hostile Civilizations, even if you're currently at war with them, will retain the title of Spy. Spies placed in these cities have a larger risk of capture, but they also have more potential for chaos. They retain their previous abilities: surveillance, stealing tech, spreading discontent, sabotage, assassination etc. but they also gain abilities for their assassinations and sabotage. Spies in this situation can also kill Great People and VIPs; If a Great Person is present you can choose to attempt a strike, killing them if you succeed. Choosing to target a VIP will, if they succeed, result in loss of 1 population and reduce production and stability by about 10% for 5 turns. Spies can also start an insurgency, suppressing production and health, or steal scientists.
-When deploying "Spies" to a City state or Nation, you can set them either as Diplomats or Spies. They can do everything they could when in a proper Civ, but diplomats can trade technology, and "Shill" to increase influence/relations. Spies can Rig elections, increasing influence significantly, and also perform Coups d'état to either annex, puppet, change the ally (swap influence with the State's ally) or Change the ideology of the host State. Spies can also siphon off gold from said states.
-Of course, "spies" can all be leveled up in their different roles.
CIVS(must-haves marked with *)
Europe
*Great Britain- Victoria
*France- Napoleon/Louis XIV
*Rome- Augustus CaesaMarcus Aurelius
*Germany- Otto von Bismarck
*Russia- Catherine/Peter I
*Greece- Alexander
Picts- Nechtan
Spain- Isabella
Portugal- Maria I
Yugoslavia- Josip Broz Tito
Poland/Commonwealth- Sigismund II
Austria- Maria Theresa
Hungary- Coloman
Kievan Rus'- Yaroslav' I
Sweden- Gustav Adolf
Denmark/Vikings- Harald Blatand
Ottomans- Suleiman Kanuni
Armenia- Tigranes
Americas
*USA- Abraham Lincoln
Lakota- Crazy Horse
Iroquois- Hiawatha
Mississippians- Birdman?
Inuit- Mikak
Navajo- Chee Dodge
Ute- Chipeta
Mexico- Benito Juarez
Canada- John Macdonald
Shoshone- Pocatello
*Aztecs- Montezuma
Pacal-Maya
Haiti- Toussaint L'Ouverture
Gran Colombia- Simon Bolivar
Brazil- Pedro II
*Inca- Pachacuti
Argentina- Juan Manuel de Rosas
Africa
*Mali- Mansa Musa
*Egypt- Hatshepsut
*Zulu- Shaka
Ethiopia- Menelik II
South Africa- Nelson Mandela
Carthage- Dido/Hannibal
Morocco- Abdul Ghalib
Ashante- Osei Kofi Tutu
Bornu- Idris Alooma
Fulani- Bello
Kongo- Lukemi lua Nimi
Kitara- Ndahura
Asia
*Arabia- Muawiya I
Babylon- Nebuchadnezzar II
Hittites- Suppiluliuma
Israel- Solomon
*Persia- Cyrus
Mughals- Akbar
*India- Gandhi
Gurkani- Timur
*Mongolia- Genghis Khan
*China- Yong-le/Wu Xetian
*Japan- Meiji
Vietnam- Trung(s)
*Khmer- Jayavarman II
Indonesia- Hayam Wuruk/ Gajah Mada
Chola- Parantaka I
Tibet- Songtsen Gampo
Korea- Sejong
Siam- Taksin
Pacific
Australia- John Curtin
Maori- Te Rauangaanga
Philippines- Dayang Kalangitan
Polynesia- Kamehameha
End
So, now that's all done. Now to the arguments!
submitted by voggers to civ [link] [comments]

A World Imagined

In order to sustain the presence of life and freedom on this planet Earth, it must be taken as a responsibility for the self-aware conscious beings that inhabit it, to engineer an environment of cohabitation and liberty, devoid of oppression to all other benign beings. Thus, we pledge to harmonize the functions of our labors to reverently nurture the cradle for anticipated generations, of all kinds. Striving without end, we embark on this task in gratitude, to allow nature take it's course, free of impairment. Priority of the task to embody compassion toward others will be perpetually held foremost, adapting habits to suit a symbiosis that considers the regional extents of intermingled thriving bodies, never to lessen their boundaries lest determined hazardous. Deliberation of this reasoning need not be outlined by numerous letter and character. By an evaluation of the merited, detriment or development shall be managed in appropriate fashion to align with the balances aforementioned.
The proposal being brought forward for balance and synergy with the planet, is a currency that is socially embellished by the cooperation of the people to contribute more as a whole than what is needed by the individuals. By which, making each denomination note worth more each year and eventually making itself obsolete as we move into a money free world. Imagine a currency backed by a renewable resource, with the benefit of manifesting our basic human needs and the means by which to share it for the progress of mankind. There is no other than the dog star plant to raise humanities standard of living to one of comfort for all lives.
Cannabis has been a useful plant for humanity since it's discovery several millennia ago, but around the world it was made illegal due to the U.N.’s Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 A.D. (UN). However, people’s attitudes are changing today with Colorado, Alaska, Oregon, and Washington becoming the first states to legalize cannabis for purposes beyond medicine, we are now free to rediscover all the amazing things this plant can do for us and our planet.
As much as the digital age is fast reducing the need for printing many things, paper is very important to a modern economy as it serves as a medium for our currency, contracts, study, and especially artwork. Paper that is typically used in modern times is most often made of wood, along with chemicals not found in nature (Gendell). Needless to say, modern paper making is bad for the environment because it not only removes trees from their ecosystems, but also adds pollutants to the atmosphere by its production. Cannabis has the potential to replace wood, and does not need chemicals to become paper (General). Cannabis also produces more biomass per acre than trees, and in less time than it takes trees to grow. For comparison, one acre of cannabis will produce two crops in a year with the equivalent amount of 4 acres of trees. Cannabis can also be used to make cardboard and even tissue paper; basically every practical industry involving trees could instead be accomplished with cannabis.
Cannabis can also be eaten in a number of ways and all parts of the plant can be prepared into a wide variety of meals. It is very common for medical dispensaries to mix the flowering tops of cannabis into sweets because of its medicinal properties, and many of these sweets could pass as just regular food (Ferner). The seeds of the plant can be used to make a bread like substance known as hempseed cake. This cake is very good for whoever consumes it as it is high in many vitamins and minerals such as magnesium and manganese (Hemp Flour). The leaves and stalk of the plant can be prepared into a drink that the Indians call “bhang” (pronounced bong) it’s a very creamy and smooth drink that tastes like water if nothing is added to the original recipe, however one can add chocolate to it for flavor, or cinnamon for flavor and memory enhancing properties. Now you can eat cannabis and drink it too, all the while its good for you, they basically made the best vegetable illegal.
Cannabis has very strong fibers that can be made into products ranging from T-shirts to Hammocks. Cannabis also grows faster than traditional sources of clothing fiber such as cotton; two to three times faster to be exact (General). What this means is that cannabis is a stronger material than what people currently use now and it is also easier to grow more of it. Cannabis could therefore be a solution to clothing the world’s population at a time when many are worrying about overpopulation, and lack of resources.
The parts of the cannabis plant that are not used for fibers are known as hurds which make up about 70% of the plant’s biomass. These hurds can be used for building material when combined with lime (General). The resulting material is called hempcrete; a material which is both self-insulating and fire proof. This material also has a carbon negative action on the atmosphere, which means that it takes CO2 out of the atmosphere and locks it inside the material of the building. On top of this carbon negative benefit of hempcrete is another: reduced energy costs due to its superior insulation properties. One of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is human homes; making homes carbon negative and less dependent on fossil fuels could help turn the clock back when it comes to excess carbon in our atmosphere (Perritano). These buildings are not new, in fact the roman aqueducts in France were made of this same material, and are still standing today even 2000 years after Rome collapsed! This implies that carbon negative action taken now will have positive effects for generations to come. It also implies that if we made public buildings out of this material we could spend less on maintaining them, and less on replacing them.
Finding a sustainable, efficient, and clean energy source has been a very big challenge for people in the 21st Century, but the search may be over as cannabis can also be made into fuel. Biodiesel can be made out of cannabis oils from the seeds and stalk of the plant, while biofuel is made from just the stalks of cannabis (General). As stated earlier cannabis grows much faster than many plants in the world, and it can also be grown all over the world. What this implies is that people would have the ability to generate their own fuel, and in turn the laws of supply and demand would lower gas prices. Not only would gas be cheaper if we produced cannabis fuel, it would create a respiratory like cycle between cars and their fuel. CO2 would be burned and released into the atmosphere and then reabsorbed by cannabis plants ready to be turned into fuel or another product. Henry Ford even demonstrated that a car can be fueled by nothing but cannabis (Henry Ford's). Essentially what cannabis allows humans to do is have a healthy natural relationship with our planet while still enjoying the pleasures of the modern world.
Motor vehicles are a huge part of our economy given that they transport goods and people from place to place, but they are made of materials that must be mined to acquire. Luckily cannabis can be made into a light durable plastic that is ideal for motor vehicles. In fact Canadian scientists have already made one.(Gordon) The Scientists discovered that by using cannabis in the creation of this car that less fuels are needed to push the car forward because the cannabis plastic is much lighter than traditional materials. Cannabis is also stronger than steel when put in this form (Gordon). So now you can make a car out of cannabis and fuel it with cannabis, while at the same time being more efficient than regular fossil fuels and stronger than traditional car material.
The most well-known use of cannabis is its medical applications. Over 20 states in the United States have recognized that cannabis is effective when treating certain ailments. For instance just recently Utah passed a bill that allows epileptic people access to CBD oil: an extract of cannabis that prevents seizures and is known as an antipsychotic. Cannabis has another compound in it loved by patients everywhere because of its innumerable applications, that compound is known as THC. THC was the reason the plant was made illegal in the first place, but that was because people had very little knowledge of its true effects. The most shocking of these medical effects is that THC actually strengthens the brain rather than weaken it as THC protects it from neurdegeneration (Walia). This protection actually prevents Alzheimer’s disease and other symptoms of aging. THC has also been proven to reduce tumors from different cancers in multiple studies. One myth about cannabis is that it gives the consumer more lung cancer than tobacco, but the opposite is actually true cannabis cures and prevents lung cancer in the consumer, and has also been found to reduce asthma. When it comes to most cancers cannabis makes these cells wither and die; denying someone this medicine because of a propaganda campaign is morally wrong. Cannabis can be used for less serious conditions as well such as chronic pain from multiple diseases (105 Peer-Reviewed). Cannabis has also been proven to help people with bipolar disorder manage their condition by improving their memory, attention, and general attitude. THC also has the effect of improving appetite which is very valuable to AIDS patients who have trouble eating, as well as people with eating disorders. To say the least Cannabis has a lot of medical applications and more are surely going to be discovered now that people are more accepting of the plant.
Cannabis’s greatest application could be its use as a currency. Throughout history, I know of 3 monetary systems: bartering goods and services, gold/silver standard money, and fiat currency. Cannabis as a medium of exchange is not a new idea; in fact Thomas Jefferson used it as currency when the government ran out of money in May of 1781 while he was governor of Virginia.("Hemp history") Just as with gold backing, such a currency would operate by having each note redeemable for an amount of hemp, whether raw or in a refined state of oil, seed, fiber, or hurds. AN ACTUAL "federal reserve" would grow, harvest, and hold this crop, along with printing the amount of money equal to the amount of resource held, so that these notes can be redeemed at the banks for the harvested raw and/or refined hemp (oil, fiber, hurd, etc). Currently our currency is based on debt, not value, and this can lead to problems among neighbors, fearing scarcity. For every dollar we print we go that much plus interest in debt: meaning we can never pay our debt off even if we used every dollar in existence. Cannabis offers us a way out of perpetual debt, and also gives the power of currency to the people rather than the privately owned Federal Reserve.
Cannabis backed currency is a unit of accountability to our ecosystem and the betterment to our every man, woman, and child. An open worldwide market utilizing a network of claimed lands would serve as the basis for a cooperative economy and government, funded by a property tax of cannabis; that is to say, the more land that you participate with, the more cannabis you pay in taxes. The government would have to send high quality seeds to all land owning people in order for this system to be fair, but at least debt is not inherently created as a loan of principle and interest when this money enters the economy.
Citizens would replace their current currency notes at the reserve with the new cannabis notes, at the same value as compared with how much raw material that amount would purchase from the reserve. ANYone, at ANY time, has the option to grow a crop to turn in to the reserves, to attain cannabis currency (the reason that this benefit does not collapse the system and erase the need for jobs by citizens, and in turn erase capitalism markets, is because it can only be done once, possibly twice, a year).
To phase it into society, the best method would be to start with businesses that can utilize the crop either by 100% or a considerable amount, for them to pay their employees in hemp notes in a slowly increasing percentage of wages and to buy hemp ingredients for their products from the new hemp banks, at an appropriate amount per unit of the resource, in relation to the present economic state in the nation (These companies would buy, in USD, the hemp to manufacture with, until the harvesting is USD proofed; not requiring petroleum to run the machines or paying wages in USD).
After the first fiscal year, the number of circulated notes would be tallied, by the use of catalogued serial numbers (tracked like anonymous credit card numbers, tied to the hemp serial note, not the person), so that the sum could be grown to sustain the size of the economy. The supply will constantly grow and shrink at the same time because of how people consume and renew it.
As the fiscal years turn, all uncirculated notes would leave behind an amount of unredeemed hemp, that would rollover into the value of each note in the following year, i.e. out of 10 trillion pounds, if all but 1 trillion is used, then the notes are now worth 1.1x the amount as they were previously. That amount would be factored into the next year's crop size, to cover it possibly being redeemed later.
There could be a maximum of the number of years this amount would be covered by next year's crop, making inheritance of "old money" wealth out of the question and keeping the crop reserves fresh. So, if notes are not redeemed for, say, 3years, the serial numbers on the notes are "burned", removing that amount from what is to be grown the next year and making those particular notes unredeemable. This portion could be taxed to supply public sector programs with their needs, by turning into free food, clothes, shelter, fuel, etc.
The amount of hemp donated from the civilians between federally sanctioned crops would count against the amount of "hemp debt" factored for the added value notes (that didn't circulate the previous year and are not set to "burn" in that cycle) By surpassing the notes queued to cover the size of the economy for the next year, this starts to reduce interest rates on loans, potentially leading to a system that has NEGATIVE interest rates on loans.
The final reason this currency is inflation proof is that it's supplies will grow with the population: the more people alive, the more people that will want to consume cannabis, so more people will grow it. Inflation would only take place on non-renewable resources, that would increase in price with the overall amount of resource/money held at reserves, just to maintain it's rate of attainment, so as not to use these too quickly.
Cannabis can be grown everywhere humans live, so it can even be put to use as an international currency free from the barriers of languages and governments. The numbers I have crunched are only to outline a general concept. Starting with an overestimated 350 million US citizens, at 50k pounds per person, a 17.5 trillion pound reserves would be grown. Going from an estimated 6-10k pound per acre yield, it would require 1.75 to 2.92 billion acres. The US has ~2.25 billion arable acres, so this can possibly be done in a single year.
Some numbers I ran based on a full capacity use worldwide:
3.10798574 billion arable hectares of land on Earth * 2 crops a year * 8000 lbs is average between 6 and 10k lbs per hectare * 16 ounces per pound as the individual units likened to a dollar, totals 795,644,349,000,000 or 795 trillion, 644 billion, 349 million. That's the total potential of a world cannabis currency in individual slices in the pie if grown at full capacity.
Only 7.59 billion hectares are needed to give everyone on Earth a 1,250 square foot home. 971.25 trillion units worth of work that can be done in about two and a half years. On top of the fiber and hurds content used from the plant to make the houses, there would also be 3,000 lbs average of seed yield per hectare * the 3.10798574 billion hectares a year * 2 crops a year is 18,647,914,440,000 or 18.65 trillion lbs of seed, 46,619,786,100,000 or 46 trillion 619 billion 786 million 100 thousand lbs of seed after the 2.5 years to grow the hemp for fiber to build houses for everyone. 37 gallons of oil per acre from seed is 284.16 billion gallons in a year, or 710.4 billion gallons of hemp oil after the 2.5 years to grow the fiber to build houses for everyone.
That is a hypothetical cap to the planet's capacity for this economy. Even if scaling it down to small fractions of the areas mentioned, you can see that it still yields a considerable amount for trial local economies.
On top of all this the flowering tops of cannabis, which hold the most THC and CBD, would be representative of other products in the economy due to the other parts of the plant being applicable for so many uses. How could this system be managed? Since all cannabis varies a spectrometer device will be needed to “read” the THC and CBD of cannabis while simultaneously weighing it. This device could also double as a virtual wallet that would account for how many cannabinoids you have stored in the bank to avoid theft and inconvenience.
All in all, cannabis has a lot of uses, and potential uses. One day you could be driving a cannabis car, using cannabis fuel, on the way to your cannabis house, to eat your cannabis dinner, while wearing cannabis clothes, and all while everything was purchased with cannabis. This plant clearly forms a symbiotic relationship with humans, and for the health of our planet it should be accepted as a wise alternative to the harmful things we do to maintain our standard of living currently.

CannabisCurrency

.A Grow
.B Harvest
.C Contributors weigh by lbs. (Banks and Individuals)
.D Store in Central Vaults (Clear pyramid over an open pit with view of cranes picking out bales)
.E Paid wages on single hemp note, with a heading like a denomination bill, a security strip, given to each company, very precious tape embeded, a ledger following under where it's spent and for how much (bifolds like a check).
.F Each place of spending would take the note, scan a bar, which figures the difference, write a new line on the ledger, prints new heading with a new company security strip embeded, new value of note stated, and then destroy the old note in order for the print to work.
.G Built in system of recording, in case of failure and needing a note replaced.
.H Spent like an anonymous bank card, that communicates the trades of the values of hemp product and hemp currency, back to the reserves.
.I However, it is a note, resembling a Bond, with a binary strip or RFID embeded.
[US Dollar (USD)] = 1 [Current Currency (CC)] = [USD] x [Exchange Rate] [Hemp Reserve Note (HRN)] = [CC]
[Crop Unit] (CU, cubic 3 ft. bundle of raw plant) [Unit Weight] (UW, number of Lbs or Kgs)
Price of Crop Unit: [Hemp Reserve Notes (HRN)]/[CU] = 27([UW]/Ft3)* x 65[CC]** * = Actual Weight {[CU] =? [UW]/Ft3} ** = [CC]/[UW], subject to change when compared with national economic state. This number represents the quantity of base value(1CC) hemp notes per pound [Yearly Print (YP)] = [Reserve Crop Held in Lbs(RCH#)] x 65**
[Citizens' Withdraw in Hemp Notes (CW)] = [CC]/65**
{YP is the new hemp currency notes put into circulation each year, that represent the exact amount of the harvested plant, broken down into stackable blocks that has been verified to be able to produce X amount of each Known Goods (KG)} (Known Goods / KG: Refer to diagram - Message me for link to PDF containing graph)
Sources
Ferner, Matt. "10 Marijuana Edibles That Could Pass As 'Real' Food." Huffington Post. 15 10 2013 : n. page. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
Gendell, Adam . "Paper is Made from What?!." GreenBlue. GreenBlue, 3 Oct. 2011. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
"General Hemp Information." HempBasics. Natural Hemp Products, n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki. "Canada's Cannabis Car." FoxNews.com. (2010): n. page. Web. 17 Mar. 2014.
"Henry Ford's Suppressed Hemp Car - What We All Should Be Driving." Spirit Science and Metaphysics. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2014.
"Hemp Flour and Hemp Seed Cake." HempSeed.ca. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
"Hemp history." Global Hemp. N.p., 2001. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
"105 Peer-Reviewed Studies on Marijuana." ProCon.org. N.p.,5 Sep. 2012. Web.4 Apr. 2014. Perritano, John. "Can I use hemp as a building material and to insulate my house?." how stuff works. n.d. n. page. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
UN, "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 ." United Nations Treaty Collection. un.org, 30 Mar. 1961. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
Walia, Arjun . "20 Medical Studies That Prove Cannabis Can Cure Cancer." Collective Evolution. N.p., 23 Aug. 2013. Web.4 Apr.. 2014.
submitted by Trokuhan87 to hemp [link] [comments]

#CannabisCurrency

In order to sustain the presence of life and freedom on this planet Earth, it must be taken as a responsibility for the self-aware conscious beings that inhabit it, to engineer an environment of cohabitation and liberty, devoid of oppression to all other benign beings. Thus, we pledge to harmonize the functions of our labors to reverently nurture the cradle for anticipated generations, of all kinds. Striving without end, we embark on this task in gratitude, to allow nature take it's course, free of impairment. Priority of the task to embody compassion toward others will be perpetually held foremost, adapting habits to suit a symbiosis that considers the regional extents of intermingled thriving bodies, never to lessen their boundaries lest determined hazardous. Deliberation of this reasoning need not be outlined by numerous letter and character. By an evaluation of the merited, detriment or development shall be managed in appropriate fashion to align with the balances aforementioned.
The proposal being brought forward for balance and synergy with the planet, is a currency that is socially embellished by the cooperation of the people to contribute more as a whole than what is needed by the individuals. By which, making each denomination note worth more each year and eventually making itself obsolete as we move into a money free world. Imagine a currency backed by a renewable resource, with the benefit of manifesting our basic human needs and the means by which to share it for the progress of mankind. There is no other than the dog star plant to raise humanities standard of living to one of comfort for all lives.
Cannabis has been a useful plant for humanity since it's discovery several millennia ago, but around the world it was made illegal due to the U.N.’s Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs in 1961 A.D. (UN). However, people’s attitudes are changing today with Colorado, Alaska, Oregon, and Washington becoming the first states to legalize cannabis for purposes beyond medicine, we are now free to rediscover all the amazing things this plant can do for us and our planet.
As much as the digital age is fast reducing the need for printing many things, paper is very important to a modern economy as it serves as a medium for our currency, contracts, study, and especially artwork. Paper that is typically used in modern times is most often made of wood, along with chemicals not found in nature (Gendell). Needless to say, modern paper making is bad for the environment because it not only removes trees from their ecosystems, but also adds pollutants to the atmosphere by its production. Cannabis has the potential to replace wood, and does not need chemicals to become paper (General). Cannabis also produces more biomass per acre than trees, and in less time than it takes trees to grow. For comparison, one acre of cannabis will produce two crops in a year with the equivalent amount of 4 acres of trees. Cannabis can also be used to make cardboard and even tissue paper; basically every practical industry involving trees could instead be accomplished with cannabis.
Cannabis can also be eaten in a number of ways and all parts of the plant can be prepared into a wide variety of meals. It is very common for medical dispensaries to mix the flowering tops of cannabis into sweets because of its medicinal properties, and many of these sweets could pass as just regular food (Ferner). The seeds of the plant can be used to make a bread like substance known as hempseed cake. This cake is very good for whoever consumes it as it is high in many vitamins and minerals such as magnesium and manganese (Hemp Flour). The leaves and stalk of the plant can be prepared into a drink that the Indians call “bhang” (pronounced bong) it’s a very creamy and smooth drink that tastes like water if nothing is added to the original recipe, however one can add chocolate to it for flavor, or cinnamon for flavor and memory enhancing properties. Now you can eat cannabis and drink it too, all the while its good for you, they basically made the best vegetable illegal.
Cannabis has very strong fibers that can be made into products ranging from T-shirts to Hammocks. Cannabis also grows faster than traditional sources of clothing fiber such as cotton; two to three times faster to be exact (General). What this means is that cannabis is a stronger material than what people currently use now and it is also easier to grow more of it. Cannabis could therefore be a solution to clothing the world’s population at a time when many are worrying about overpopulation, and lack of resources.
The parts of the cannabis plant that are not used for fibers are known as hurds which make up about 70% of the plant’s biomass. These hurds can be used for building material when combined with lime (General). The resulting material is called hempcrete; a material which is both self-insulating and fire proof. This material also has a carbon negative action on the atmosphere, which means that it takes CO2 out of the atmosphere and locks it inside the material of the building. On top of this carbon negative benefit of hempcrete is another: reduced energy costs due to its superior insulation properties. One of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is human homes; making homes carbon negative and less dependent on fossil fuels could help turn the clock back when it comes to excess carbon in our atmosphere (Perritano). These buildings are not new, in fact the roman aqueducts in France were made of this same material, and are still standing today even 2000 years after Rome collapsed! This implies that carbon negative action taken now will have positive effects for generations to come. It also implies that if we made public buildings out of this material we could spend less on maintaining them, and less on replacing them.
Finding a sustainable, efficient, and clean energy source has been a very big challenge for people in the 21st Century, but the search may be over as cannabis can also be made into fuel. Biodiesel can be made out of cannabis oils from the seeds and stalk of the plant, while biofuel is made from just the stalks of cannabis (General). As stated earlier cannabis grows much faster than many plants in the world, and it can also be grown all over the world. What this implies is that people would have the ability to generate their own fuel, and in turn the laws of supply and demand would lower gas prices. Not only would gas be cheaper if we produced cannabis fuel, it would create a respiratory like cycle between cars and their fuel. CO2 would be burned and released into the atmosphere and then reabsorbed by cannabis plants ready to be turned into fuel or another product. Henry Ford even demonstrated that a car can be fueled by nothing but cannabis (Henry Ford's). Essentially what cannabis allows humans to do is have a healthy natural relationship with our planet while still enjoying the pleasures of the modern world.
Motor vehicles are a huge part of our economy given that they transport goods and people from place to place, but they are made of materials that must be mined to acquire. Luckily cannabis can be made into a light durable plastic that is ideal for motor vehicles. In fact Canadian scientists have already made one.(Gordon) The Scientists discovered that by using cannabis in the creation of this car that less fuels are needed to push the car forward because the cannabis plastic is much lighter than traditional materials. Cannabis is also stronger than steel when put in this form (Gordon). So now you can make a car out of cannabis and fuel it with cannabis, while at the same time being more efficient than regular fossil fuels and stronger than traditional car material.
The most well-known use of cannabis is its medical applications. Over 20 states in the United States have recognized that cannabis is effective when treating certain ailments. For instance just recently Utah passed a bill that allows epileptic people access to CBD oil: an extract of cannabis that prevents seizures and is known as an antipsychotic. Cannabis has another compound in it loved by patients everywhere because of its innumerable applications, that compound is known as THC. THC was the reason the plant was made illegal in the first place, but that was because people had very little knowledge of its true effects. The most shocking of these medical effects is that THC actually strengthens the brain rather than weaken it as THC protects it from neurdegeneration (Walia). This protection actually prevents Alzheimer’s disease and other symptoms of aging. THC has also been proven to reduce tumors from different cancers in multiple studies. One myth about cannabis is that it gives the consumer more lung cancer than tobacco, but the opposite is actually true cannabis cures and prevents lung cancer in the consumer, and has also been found to reduce asthma. When it comes to most cancers cannabis makes these cells wither and die; denying someone this medicine because of a propaganda campaign is morally wrong. Cannabis can be used for less serious conditions as well such as chronic pain from multiple diseases (105 Peer-Reviewed). Cannabis has also been proven to help people with bipolar disorder manage their condition by improving their memory, attention, and general attitude. THC also has the effect of improving appetite which is very valuable to AIDS patients who have trouble eating, as well as people with eating disorders. To say the least Cannabis has a lot of medical applications and more are surely going to be discovered now that people are more accepting of the plant.
Cannabis’s greatest application could be its use as a currency. Throughout history, I know of 3 monetary systems: bartering goods and services, gold/silver standard money, and fiat currency. Cannabis as a medium of exchange is not a new idea; in fact Thomas Jefferson used it as currency when the government ran out of money in May of 1781 while he was governor of Virginia.("Hemp history") Just as with gold backing, such a currency would operate by having each note redeemable for an amount of hemp, whether raw or in a refined state of oil, seed, fiber, or hurds. AN ACTUAL "federal reserve" would grow, harvest, and hold this crop, along with printing the amount of money equal to the amount of resource held, so that these notes can be redeemed at the banks for the harvested raw and/or refined hemp (oil, fiber, hurd, etc). Currently our currency is based on debt, not value, and this can lead to problems among neighbors, fearing scarcity. For every dollar we print we go that much plus interest in debt: meaning we can never pay our debt off even if we used every dollar in existence. Cannabis offers us a way out of perpetual debt, and also gives the power of currency to the people rather than the privately owned Federal Reserve.
Cannabis backed currency is a unit of accountability to our ecosystem and the betterment to our every man, woman, and child. An open worldwide market utilizing a network of claimed lands would serve as the basis for a cooperative economy and government, funded by a property tax of cannabis; that is to say, the more land that you participate with, the more cannabis you pay in taxes. The government would have to send high quality seeds to all land owning people in order for this system to be fair, but at least debt is not inherently created as a loan of principle and interest when this money enters the economy.
Citizens would replace their current currency notes at the reserve with the new cannabis notes, at the same value as compared with how much raw material that amount would purchase from the reserve. ANYone, at ANY time, has the option to grow a crop to turn in to the reserves, to attain cannabis currency (the reason that this benefit does not collapse the system and erase the need for jobs by citizens, and in turn erase capitalism markets, is because it can only be done once, possibly twice, a year).
To phase it into society, the best method would be to start with businesses that can utilize the crop either by 100% or a considerable amount, for them to pay their employees in hemp notes in a slowly increasing percentage of wages and to buy hemp ingredients for their products from the new hemp banks, at an appropriate amount per unit of the resource, in relation to the present economic state in the nation (These companies would buy, in USD, the hemp to manufacture with, until the harvesting is USD proofed; not requiring petroleum to run the machines or paying wages in USD).
After the first fiscal year, the number of circulated notes would be tallied, by the use of catalogued serial numbers (tracked like anonymous credit card numbers, tied to the hemp serial note, not the person), so that the sum could be grown to sustain the size of the economy. The supply will constantly grow and shrink at the same time because of how people consume and renew it.
As the fiscal years turn, all uncirculated notes would leave behind an amount of unredeemed hemp, that would rollover into the value of each note in the following year, i.e. out of 10 trillion pounds, if all but 1 trillion is used, then the notes are now worth 1.1x the amount as they were previously. That amount would be factored into the next year's crop size, to cover it possibly being redeemed later.
There could be a maximum of the number of years this amount would be covered by next year's crop, making inheritance of "old money" wealth out of the question and keeping the crop reserves fresh. So, if notes are not redeemed for, say, 3years, the serial numbers on the notes are "burned", removing that amount from what is to be grown the next year and making those particular notes unredeemable. This portion could be taxed to supply public sector programs with their needs, by turning into free food, clothes, shelter, fuel, etc.
The amount of hemp donated from the civilians between federally sanctioned crops would count against the amount of "hemp debt" factored for the added value notes (that didn't circulate the previous year and are not set to "burn" in that cycle) By surpassing the notes queued to cover the size of the economy for the next year, this starts to reduce interest rates on loans, potentially leading to a system that has NEGATIVE interest rates on loans.
The final reason this currency is inflation proof is that it's supplies will grow with the population: the more people alive, the more people that will want to consume cannabis, so more people will grow it. Inflation would only take place on non-renewable resources, that would increase in price with the overall amount of resource/money held at reserves, just to maintain it's rate of attainment, so as not to use these too quickly.
Cannabis can be grown everywhere humans live, so it can even be put to use as an international currency free from the barriers of languages and governments. The numbers I have crunched are only to outline a general concept. Starting with an overestimated 350 million US citizens, at 50k pounds per person, a 17.5 trillion pound reserves would be grown. Going from an estimated 6-10k pound per acre yield, it would require 1.75 to 2.92 billion acres. The US has ~2.25 billion arable acres, so this can possibly be done in a single year.
Some numbers I ran based on a full capacity use worldwide:
3.10798574 billion arable hectares of land on Earth * 2 crops a year * 8000 lbs is average between 6 and 10k lbs per hectare * 16 ounces per pound as the individual units likened to a dollar, totals 795,644,349,000,000 or 795 trillion, 644 billion, 349 million. That's the total potential of a world cannabis currency in individual slices in the pie if grown at full capacity.
Only 7.59 billion hectares are needed to give everyone on Earth a 1,250 square foot home. 971.25 trillion units worth of work that can be done in about two and a half years. On top of the fiber and hurds content used from the plant to make the houses, there would also be 3,000 lbs average of seed yield per hectare * the 3.10798574 billion hectares a year * 2 crops a year is 18,647,914,440,000 or 18.65 trillion lbs of seed, 46,619,786,100,000 or 46 trillion 619 billion 786 million 100 thousand lbs of seed after the 2.5 years to grow the hemp for fiber to build houses for everyone. 37 gallons of oil per acre from seed is 284.16 billion gallons in a year, or 710.4 billion gallons of hemp oil after the 2.5 years to grow the fiber to build houses for everyone.
That is a hypothetical cap to the planet's capacity for this economy. Even if scaling it down to small fractions of the areas mentioned, you can see that it still yields a considerable amount for trial local economies.
On top of all this the flowering tops of cannabis, which hold the most THC and CBD, would be representative of other products in the economy due to the other parts of the plant being applicable for so many uses. How could this system be managed? Since all cannabis varies a spectrometer device will be needed to “read” the THC and CBD of cannabis while simultaneously weighing it. This device could also double as a virtual wallet that would account for how many cannabinoids you have stored in the bank to avoid theft and inconvenience.
All in all, cannabis has a lot of uses, and potential uses. One day you could be driving a cannabis car, using cannabis fuel, on the way to your cannabis house, to eat your cannabis dinner, while wearing cannabis clothes, and all while everything was purchased with cannabis. This plant clearly forms a symbiotic relationship with humans, and for the health of our planet it should be accepted as a wise alternative to the harmful things we do to maintain our standard of living currently.

CannabisCurrency

https://www.reddit.com/economy/comments/4y9v9x/a_world_imagined/
.A Grow
.B Harvest
.C Contributors weigh by lbs. (Banks and Individuals)
.D Store in Central Vaults (Clear pyramid over an open pit with view of cranes picking out bales)
.E Paid wages on single hemp note, with a heading like a denomination bill, a security strip, given to each company, very precious tape embeded, a ledger following under where it's spent and for how much (bifolds like a check).
.F Each place of spending would take the note, scan a bar, which figures the difference, write a new line on the ledger, prints new heading with a new company security strip embeded, new value of note stated, and then destroy the old note in order for the print to work.
.G Built in system of recording, in case of failure and needing a note replaced.
.H Spent like an anonymous bank card, that communicates the trades of the values of hemp product and hemp currency, back to the reserves.
.I However, it is a note, resembling a Bond, with a binary strip or RFID embeded.
[US Dollar (USD)] = 1 [Current Currency (CC)] = [USD] x [Exchange Rate] [Hemp Reserve Note (HRN)] = [CC]
[Crop Unit] (CU, cubic 3 ft. bundle of raw plant) [Unit Weight] (UW, number of Lbs or Kgs)
Price of Crop Unit: [Hemp Reserve Notes (HRN)]/[CU] = 27([UW]/Ft3)* x 65[CC]** * = Actual Weight {[CU] =? [UW]/Ft3} ** = [CC]/[UW], subject to change when compared with national economic state. This number represents the quantity of base value(1CC) hemp notes per pound [Yearly Print (YP)] = [Reserve Crop Held in Lbs(RCH#)] x 65**
[Citizens' Withdraw in Hemp Notes (CW)] = [CC]/65**
{YP is the new hemp currency notes put into circulation each year, that represent the exact amount of the harvested plant, broken down into stackable blocks that has been verified to be able to produce X amount of each Known Goods (KG)} (Known Goods / KG: Refer to diagram - Message me for link to PDF containing graph)
Sources
Ferner, Matt. "10 Marijuana Edibles That Could Pass As 'Real' Food." Huffington Post. 15 10 2013 : n. page. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
Gendell, Adam . "Paper is Made from What?!." GreenBlue. GreenBlue, 3 Oct. 2011. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
"General Hemp Information." HempBasics. Natural Hemp Products, n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
Gordon-Bloomfield, Nikki. "Canada's Cannabis Car." FoxNews.com. (2010): n. page. Web. 17 Mar. 2014.
"Henry Ford's Suppressed Hemp Car - What We All Should Be Driving." Spirit Science and Metaphysics. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2014.
"Hemp Flour and Hemp Seed Cake." HempSeed.ca. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
"Hemp history." Global Hemp. N.p., 2001. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
"105 Peer-Reviewed Studies on Marijuana." ProCon.org. N.p.,5 Sep. 2012. Web.4 Apr. 2014. Perritano, John. "Can I use hemp as a building material and to insulate my house?." how stuff works. n.d. n. page. Web. 4 Apr. 2014
UN, "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 ." United Nations Treaty Collection. un.org, 30 Mar. 1961. Web. 4 Apr. 2014.
Walia, Arjun . "20 Medical Studies That Prove Cannabis Can Cure Cancer." Collective Evolution. N.p., 23 Aug. 2013. Web.4 Apr.. 2014.
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