Secp256k1 - Bitcoin Wiki

New to Bitcoin? Confused? Need help? You've come to the right place.

Bitcoin is an internet based decentralised currency. Similarly to Bittorrent, but Bitcoin uses a public ledger called the blockchain to record who has sent and received money. It's very new, and for many very confusing. BitcoinHelp aims to rectify this. Whether it be explaining how it works, how to use it, how to buy Bitcoins, how to integrate Bitcoins into your business. Sharing your successes as well as failures in order to help others is also gladly received. Ask away!
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Rein - Decentralized Labor Market

Rein is an experiment in decentralized labor that combines Bitcoin multisig escrow, digital signatures, and an internet-like microhosting model to build an uncensorable labor market.
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I made a pure python implementation of RSA/ECDSA/bitcoin address creation

submitted by imatwork2017 to crypto [link] [comments]

"WARNING: Handling of raw ECDSA bitcoin private keys can lead to non-intuitive behaviour and loss of funds."

I have a joinmarket wallet that has about 0.2 btc in every mixing depth on the first address, and nothing else.
I realized that sendpayment.py can't sweep these because every address is on a different mix depth. Not sure tumbling would work on a wallet like this either. Thought about importing all the addresses in different mix depth to a new wallet within the same mixing depth and run a tumble (or a couple of sendpayments and then a tumble) but got this warning in the title. What are the risks involved with running tumbler.py or sendpayment.py on imported addresses? (Other than a separate backup has to be done because the seed words will not contain them)
The goal is to tumble all the coins into an other joinmarket wallet.
submitted by nyway to joinmarket [link] [comments]

NSA Suite B Cryptography - NSA deprecates P-256 of ECDSA (Bitcoin uses P-256), in favor of Curve P-384

NSA Suite B Cryptography - NSA deprecates P-256 of ECDSA (Bitcoin uses P-256), in favor of Curve P-384 submitted by eragmus to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

NSA Suite B Cryptography - NSA deprecates P-256 of ECDSA (Bitcoin uses P-256), in favor of Curve P-384

NSA Suite B Cryptography - NSA deprecates P-256 of ECDSA (Bitcoin uses P-256), in favor of Curve P-384 submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Upcoming Updates to Bitcoin Consensus

Price and Libra posts are shit boring, so let's focus on a technical topic for a change.
Let me start by presenting a few of the upcoming Bitcoin consensus changes.
(as these are consensus changes and not P2P changes it does not include erlay or dandelion)
Let's hope the community strongly supports these upcoming updates!

Schnorr

The sexy new signing algo.

Advantages

Disadvantages

MuSig

A provably-secure way for a group of n participants to form an aggregate pubkey and signature. Creating their group pubkey does not require their coordination other than getting individual pubkeys from each participant, but creating their signature does require all participants to be online near-simultaneously.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Taproot

Hiding a Bitcoin SCRIPT inside a pubkey, letting you sign with the pubkey without revealing the SCRIPT, or reveal the SCRIPT without signing with the pubkey.

Advantages

Disadvantages

MAST

Encode each possible branch of a Bitcoin contract separately, and only require revelation of the exact branch taken, without revealing any of the other branches. One of the Taproot script versions will be used to denote a MAST construction. If the contract has only one branch then MAST does not add more overhead.

Advantages

Disadvantages

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How can I sign a message with a Litecoin address using PHP?

I am looking for something similar to https://github.com/BitcoinPHP/BitcoinECDSA.php/blob/mastesrc/BitcoinPHP/BitcoinECDSA/BitcoinECDSA.php, i.e. doing it independently on a PHP server without any need to make a JSON-RPC call.
submitted by ramboKick to litecoin [link] [comments]

ECDSA: How does Bitcoin "chooses" the Elliptic Curve point?

Recently I've read about point addition in elliptic curves and the ECDSA and became curious about how it is applied in the bitcoin code.
I've learned that the main idea is, given a point P in the elliptic curve, the relation is:

X = xP, where x is the 256-bit integer number Private Key and X is the Public Key.

So, my questions are:

1 - How is the point P "chosen"? Is it the same everytime? Or is it randomized?
2 - How is X format defined? Do you just concatenate the x and y coordinates of P?
submitted by marcelo10fr1 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ECDSA In Bitcoin

Digital signatures are considered the foundation of online sovereignty. The advent of public-key cryptography in 1976 paved the way for the creation of a global communications tool – the Internet, and a completely new form of money – Bitcoin. Although the fundamental properties of public-key cryptography have not changed much since then, dozens of different open-source digital signature schemes are now available to cryptographers.

How ECDSA was incorporated into Bitcoin

When Satoshi Nakamoto, a mystical founder of the first crypto, started working on Bitcoin, one of the key points was to select the signature schemes for an open and public financial system. The requirements were clear. An algorithm should have been widely used, understandable, safe enough, easy, and, what is more important, open-sourced.
Of all the options available at that time, he chose the one that met these criteria: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, or ECDSA.
At that time, native support for ECDSA was provided in OpenSSL, an open set of encryption tools developed by experienced cipher banks in order to increase the confidentiality of online communications. Compared to other popular schemes, ECDSA had such advantages as:
These are extremely useful features for digital money. At the same time, it provides a proportional level of security: for example, a 256-bit ECDSA key has the same level of security as a 3072-bit RSA key (Rivest, Shamir и Adleman) with a significantly smaller key size.

Basic principles of ECDSA

ECDSA is a process that uses elliptic curves and finite fields to “sign” data in such a way that third parties can easily verify the authenticity of the signature, but the signer himself reserves the exclusive opportunity to create signatures. In the case of Bitcoin, the “data” that is signed is a transaction that transfers ownership of bitcoins.
ECDSA has two separate procedures for signing and verifying. Each procedure is an algorithm consisting of several arithmetic operations. The signature algorithm uses the private key, and the verification algorithm uses only the public key.
To use ECDSA, such protocol as Bitcoin must fix a set of parameters for the elliptic curve and its finite field, so that all users of the protocol know and apply these parameters. Otherwise, everyone will solve their own equations, which will not converge with each other, and they will never agree on anything.
For all these parameters, Bitcoin uses very, very large (well, awesomely incredibly huge) numbers. It is important. In fact, all practical applications of ECDSA use huge numbers. After all, the security of this algorithm relies on the fact that these values are too large to pick up a key with a simple brute force. The 384-bit ECDSA key is considered safe enough for the NSA's most secretive government service (USA).

Replacement of ECDSA

Thanks to the hard work done by Peter Wuille (a famous cryptography specialist) and his colleagues on an improved elliptical curve called secp256k1, Bitcoin's ECDSA has become even faster and more efficient. However, ECDSA still has some shortcomings, which can serve as a sufficient basis for its complete replacement. After several years of research and experimentation, a new signature scheme was established to increase the confidentiality and efficiency of Bitcoin transactions: Schnorr's digital signature scheme.
Schnorr's signature takes the process of using “keys” to a new level. It takes only 64 bytes when it gets into the block, which reduces the space occupied by transactions by 4%. Since transactions with the Schnorr signature are the same size, this makes it possible to pre-calculate the total size of the part of the block that contains such signatures. A preliminary calculation of the block size is the key to its safe increase in the future.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to btc [link] [comments]

LadderLeak: Breaking ECDSA With Less Than One Bit Of Nonce Leakage - is this relevant for Bitcoin?

submitted by BitcoinReminder_com to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ECDSA In Bitcoin

Digital signatures are considered the foundation of online sovereignty. The advent of public-key cryptography in 1976 paved the way for the creation of a global communications tool – the Internet, and a completely new form of money – Bitcoin. Although the fundamental properties of public-key cryptography have not changed much since then, dozens of different open-source digital signature schemes are now available to cryptographers.

How ECDSA was incorporated into Bitcoin

When Satoshi Nakamoto, a mystical founder of the first crypto, started working on Bitcoin, one of the key points was to select the signature schemes for an open and public financial system. The requirements were clear. An algorithm should have been widely used, understandable, safe enough, easy, and, what is more important, open-sourced.
Of all the options available at that time, he chose the one that met these criteria: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, or ECDSA.
At that time, native support for ECDSA was provided in OpenSSL, an open set of encryption tools developed by experienced cipher banks in order to increase the confidentiality of online communications. Compared to other popular schemes, ECDSA had such advantages as:
These are extremely useful features for digital money. At the same time, it provides a proportional level of security: for example, a 256-bit ECDSA key has the same level of security as a 3072-bit RSA key (Rivest, Shamir и Adleman) with a significantly smaller key size.

Basic principles of ECDSA

ECDSA is a process that uses elliptic curves and finite fields to “sign” data in such a way that third parties can easily verify the authenticity of the signature, but the signer himself reserves the exclusive opportunity to create signatures. In the case of Bitcoin, the “data” that is signed is a transaction that transfers ownership of bitcoins.
ECDSA has two separate procedures for signing and verifying. Each procedure is an algorithm consisting of several arithmetic operations. The signature algorithm uses the private key, and the verification algorithm uses only the public key.
To use ECDSA, such protocol as Bitcoin must fix a set of parameters for the elliptic curve and its finite field, so that all users of the protocol know and apply these parameters. Otherwise, everyone will solve their own equations, which will not converge with each other, and they will never agree on anything.
For all these parameters, Bitcoin uses very, very large (well, awesomely incredibly huge) numbers. It is important. In fact, all practical applications of ECDSA use huge numbers. After all, the security of this algorithm relies on the fact that these values are too large to pick up a key with a simple brute force. The 384-bit ECDSA key is considered safe enough for the NSA's most secretive government service (USA).

Replacement of ECDSA

Thanks to the hard work done by Peter Wuille (a famous cryptography specialist) and his colleagues on an improved elliptical curve called secp256k1, Bitcoin's ECDSA has become even faster and more efficient. However, ECDSA still has some shortcomings, which can serve as a sufficient basis for its complete replacement. After several years of research and experimentation, a new signature scheme was established to increase the confidentiality and efficiency of Bitcoin transactions: Schnorr's digital signature scheme.
Schnorr's signature takes the process of using “keys” to a new level. It takes only 64 bytes when it gets into the block, which reduces the space occupied by transactions by 4%. Since transactions with the Schnorr signature are the same size, this makes it possible to pre-calculate the total size of the part of the block that contains such signatures. A preliminary calculation of the block size is the key to its safe increase in the future.
Keep up with the news of the crypto world at CoinJoy.io Follow us on Twitter and Medium. Subscribe to our YouTube channel. Join our Telegram channel. For any inquiries mail us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
submitted by CoinjoyAssistant to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

IBM to sell universal 50-qubit quantum computer 'In the next few years'

https://arstechnica.co.uk/gadgets/2017/03/ibm-q-50-qubit-quantum-computer
Most discussions I've found about bitcoin and quantum computing have been philosophical, 'in-the-future' kind of discussions, but it's no longer something to worry about later; it's pretty much here. How does quantum computing affect hashing? ECDSA? Bitcoin in general?
submitted by AltForMyRealOpinion to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Any interest in a dirtbag leftist podcast that actually understands and can explain ECDSA ecryption in simple terms why it works? Who knows the developers of Tor? Thinks we should use the irreversible nature of Bitcoin and the fact that so many libertarians have it to steal money from libertarians?

No patreon, no special episodes, so no standard length and no set schedule. We are hackers, we can get money just taking it from libertarians or submitting exploits to companies, governments etc.
. We recorded our first hacker dirtbag left podcast episode, its being edited, It will be the second episode, the first will be listening series to correct the recent true anon episode. Explaining things in simple terms, demostrating hacks on DNC, RNC and other funny things. Overtly communist (like many hackers outside of the hell that is San Francisco and the USA).

And not just telling you what is right/wrong, convicing you in simple to understand terms, with two hackers that have ruined liberarians, scientists, in biology and genetics, contributing to open source projects. Trying to destroy the culture in San Francisco and the USA, by broadcasting from Montevideo Uruguay (for now). Lived in Germany, Turkey (pour vial of acid out for my dead kurdish homies killing cops in fatih), Romania, Korea, Vietnam, soon Mexico City and Cuba for a while.
We dont need your money. But if you could share it if you like it when we post it, that would be better than money, just so a hackescience perspective can be heard on the dirtbag left. We are cool with Luddites, we understand technology, we understand why someone would want to be a Luddite, but the Luddites on the left will still need hacker allies.
So the last episode of true anon, and really the history of the internet episode, really need to be addressed intelligently. So we will be doing that tomorow and editing it the next day for our first episode release. Maybe a few other Chapo universe podcast clips that just get things wrong.
Then we move on to telling the story of how the internet got so fucked, how became centralized, why the left has to self censor or get vists from ICE, FBI and Homeland Security. Stratfor, LOIC, why Tor is good (we will convince you not just tell you), how eccliplic cryptography works, and yes libertarians love bitcoin, so we should be stealing them from them, its not reversible, we can take their money/power and use it to fund leftists causes, from elections, to legal help. History of CCC and leftist hacker movements, Jeremy Hammon saga, what he found on Strafor's servers, and what that tells us about certain parts of the internet.
A lot of original reporting, with documents, explanations and good show notes, to convince you, not tell you what to think.
After we do a few episodes on how the internet got to where it is now, what the problems we face. We can talk how to fix voting, the internet, better solutions than just "nationalize facebook" that can actually be put into a bill and passed, how to stay alive and out of jail.
We even have some interviews lined up with hackers in other regions of the world, and criminal defense lawyers in the US. Tips and tricks, if you want to do praxis that actually scares the fascists, and how to do it safe. And most importantly, how to piss off libertarians and make money doing it.

Oh and we will start a forum somewhere off reddit that requires joining a web of trust to post, or maybe 2 dollars. That way when we find right wing idiots, we can punish them and make them give us money everytime they reveal themselves as rightwingers. Not perfect but it will at least cost them resources to invade our forums.
submitted by ready_player_dumb to TrueAnon [link] [comments]

@binance: #binance Adds Open-Source Implementation for Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) in the TSS Library The library is compatible with ECDSA-based blockchains, including Binance Chain, #Bitcoin, and @ethereum networks. https://t.co/xNILYim9EV

@binance: #binance Adds Open-Source Implementation for Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) in the TSS Library The library is compatible with ECDSA-based blockchains, including Binance Chain, #Bitcoin, and @ethereum networks. https://t.co/xNILYim9EV submitted by rulesforrebels to BinanceTrading [link] [comments]

@BinanceResearch: RT @binance: #binance Adds Open-Source Implementation for Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) in the TSS Library The library is compatible with ECDSA-based blockchains, including Binance Chain, #Bitcoin, and @ethereum networks. https://t.co/xNILYim9EV

@BinanceResearch: RT @binance: #binance Adds Open-Source Implementation for Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) in the TSS Library The library is compatible with ECDSA-based blockchains, including Binance Chain, #Bitcoin, and @ethereum networks. https://t.co/xNILYim9EV submitted by rulesforrebels to BinanceTrading [link] [comments]

Satoshi Nakamoto built in defenses against quantum computing attacks - If you use one Bitcoin address one time, then your ECDSA public key is only ever revealed at the one time that you spend bitcoins sent to each address. A quantum computer would need to be to break your key in that short time.

submitted by crazyeyes420 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A model for projecting when quantum computers will break #Bitcoin's 256-bit ECDSA

A model for projecting when quantum computers will break #Bitcoin's 256-bit ECDSA submitted by QRCollector to QuantumComputing [link] [comments]

@nadiaheninger and Joachim Breitner discoverer nonce biases in several Bitcoin ECDSA implementations. They were able to recover 300 Bitcoin private keys holding a whopping $54.

@nadiaheninger and Joachim Breitner discoverer nonce biases in several Bitcoin ECDSA implementations. They were able to recover 300 Bitcoin private keys holding a whopping $54. submitted by Aussiehash to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[Discussion: QComputing] A model for projecting when quantum computers will break #Bitcoin's 256-bit ECDSA

submitted by iciq to QuantumInformation [link] [comments]

The bitcoin blockchain and ECDSA Nonce Reuse Private Key recovery attacks made easy.

submitted by -tin- to netsec [link] [comments]

"If ECDSA is broken, Bitcoin can remain reasonably secure if you don't reuse addresses." Is this true?

If this is actually true, what makes it true?
That post is pretty old. Has anything significant changed? What's the recommended best practice these days if you need to reuse an address? For example you are a business and need to have a single address that can be published and it wouldn't be practical to keep constantly changing it?
Is this also actually true: "(That is, an address's sent transactions might not actually be meaningful, related to its receipts, or even made by the person who receives money at that address.) "? If so, why would that be the case? It sounds like the OP is suggesting an address can somehow "send" bitcoins that it never "received" - how can that be?
submitted by nonestdicula to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Luke-Jr decides to rename "paper wallet" to "Paper ECDSA private keys" for all of us. Replaces all paper wallet information on the Bitcoin Wiki with what he prefers to use (HD mnemonic wallet backups).

Luke-Jr doesn't like paper wallets. To this end, he has renamed/moved the official Bitcoin wiki for "Paper Wallet" to "Paper ECDSA private keys", making it confusing and difficult for users to learn what a paper wallet is and how to stay safe when making one. Meanwhile, he has created a brand new "Paper wallet" page in which he redefines a paper wallet as a Armory/Electrum backup of a HD wallet mnemonic seed, and says that these should not be confused with what you and I and everyone else calls a paper wallet.
The other contribution Luke-Jr made to the original paper wallet wiki was to unlink my own service (bitcoinpaperwallet.com) from the wiki, his reasoning being, "BitcoinPaperWallet was removed because it is a website for generating private keys". As someone who has put a lot of energy into paper wallet education and generally helping the bitcoin community with paper wallet generation, I find this utterly baffling.
I don't want to get involved in a revision battle here. Luke-Jr has already started that, reverting any changes I make to the wiki instantly.
If you have an opinion on this matter and you have bitcoin wiki editor privileges, please express it on the discussion page.
Edit 1: you can also express opinions right here of course :)
Edit 2: much of the discussion on this page is about whether or not paper wallets are a good idea, or if websites should be used to generate them. Can we at least agree that these pro/con arguments should appear on a wiki page called "paper wallets" so everyone can find them? If those arguments appear on a wiki page called "Paper ECDSA private keys" then nobody will see them.
Edit 3: Gladoscc on the wiki has renamed "Paper ECDSA private keys" back to "Paper Wallet" as of 12:41 UTC, so you may be confused if you visit the wiki to see what all the hubbub is about -- unless his change has been reverted by the time you read this. :)
Edit 4: Gladoscc's change didn't last for more than 24 hours before Luke-Jr re-reverted the changes, and then added in a confounding set of redirects in the wiki so that "Paper Wallet" redirects to "Paper wallet" which then redirects to his page on HD wallet mnemonic seeds. I cannot understand how this is supposed to help end users who want to learn what a paper wallet is (and why they're risky, and how hard it is to produce them in a safe way.)
submitted by cantonbecker to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

So I compared two papers. Both about breaking the Signatures in bitcoin (ECDSA) and the probable timeline for quantum computers to make this possible within 10 minutes.

One estimates 2030-2040, but quite likely never.
The other states somewhere around 2027.
The first one seems a bit biased, as if they were working towards a pre set conclusion instead of the other way around. Or am I the one being biased?
submitted by QRCollector to QuantumComputing [link] [comments]

Getting the ECDSA Z Value from a Single Input Multi Signature Transaction DE: Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm ECDSA  Teil 10 Kryptographie Crashkurs Dev++ 01-01-EN  Foundational Math, ECDSA and Transactions - Jimy Song Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) (Money Button Documentation Series) [New! Update] BTC Privatekey Finder With Python 3.0+ ECDSA

Currently Bitcoin uses secp256k1 with the ECDSA algorithm, though the same curve with the same public/private keys can be used in some other algorithms such as Schnorr. secp256k1 was almost never used before Bitcoin became popular, but it is now gaining in popularity due to its several nice properties. Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is a cryptographic algorithm used by Bitcoin to ensure that funds can only be spent by their rightful owners. Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm. From BitcoinWiki. This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent. not exactly ECDSA, but served me alot for Bitcoin undertsanding/testing. Security hint: you would never provide/use a private key to/from such a public website, unless you are really sure of what you are doing. Be extremly careful. Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. This has nothing to do with RFC6979, but with ECDSA signing and public key recovery. The (r, s) is the normal output of an ECDSA signature, where r is computed as the X coordinate of a point R, modulo the curve order n. In Bitcoin, for message signatures, we use a trick called public key recovery.

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Getting the ECDSA Z Value from a Single Input Multi Signature Transaction

#bitcoinPrivatekey #hotvideo #Bitcoin Python code Bib39 for finder bitcoin privatekey Buy it -- https://satoshidisk.com/pay/C8qYXr Contact Email kritcharatme... Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm ECDSA Part 10 Cryptography Crashcourse - Duration: 35:32. Dr. Julian Hosp - Blockchain, Krypto, Bitcoin 5,773 views Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm ECDSA Part 10 Cryptography Crashcourse Dr. Julian Hosp - Bitcoin, Aktien, Gold und Co. ... My videos are about Bitcoin, Ethereum, Blockchain and crypto ... Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm ECDSA Part 10 Cryptography Crashcourse - Duration: 35:32. Dr. Julian Hosp - Blockchain, Krypto, Bitcoin 5,761 views Jimmy Song explains the basics of cryptography that serves as a foundation for Bitcoin transactions. This course provides in-depth coverage of Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA ...

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