3 Interesting things you can buy with Bitcoin! - Tips for

An Open Standard To Problem Solving

silene is a community for posting interesting solutions to problems by outlining the solutions themselves and their applications to other problems in a simple, concise manner.
[link]

One of the ideas which stuck with me is hashing and its power to verify the integrity of data securely. It inspired this visualization project entitled Cloud Hashes. Since Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm, my artwork visualizes and references many elements of this hash function.

One of the ideas which stuck with me is hashing and its power to verify the integrity of data securely. It inspired this visualization project entitled Cloud Hashes. Since Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm, my artwork visualizes and references many elements of this hash function. submitted by therealhodlonaut to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

REMINDER: Calling the BTC Blockchain "Bitcoin" is a Bad Idea and Confusing; It's Better to Refer to It As BTC or Bitcoin BTC to Show it is NOT the Only Version of Bitcoin

Yesterday this thread was highly upvoted on btc: Bitcoin user surprised he has to pay 12% fee on a video game key
While it's good to emphasize the absurdity of high network fees when we ourselves refer to the BTC blockchain as "Bitcoin" we work against ourselves and confuse people. This is what Core supporters talk about when they say Roger Ver is "scamming" people on Bitcoin.com. We understand why there can be a dispute over what Bitcoin actually is, and why Bitcoin Cash is the best representation of Bitcoin as started by Satoshi himself, but mainstream users won't.
It harms our efforts because all publications use the word "Bitcoin" and that's what early adopters, many of which are here now, recommended to help Bitcoin blow up in the first place. So when people look and see "Oh, Bitcoin is not dead but rising?! I want THAT!" Then they end up in the land of censorship, have a horrible experience with high transfer fees, hear about avoiding some scam called "BCash" because using BTC is what all the fuss and excitement is about, then they scratch their head and create posts like the one above!
Let's proactively change the narrative. Until we do Bitcoin BTC will continue rising while a better experience coin, BCH, struggles to catch up. The BTC chain is BINO, Bitcoin In Name Only. Let's shout it!
More: https://coinster.pro/content/56/why-the-name-bitcoin-belongs-to-bitcoin-cash
submitted by cryptos4pz to btc [link] [comments]

REMINDER: Calling the BTC Blockchain "Bitcoin" is a Bad Idea and Confusing; It's Better to Refer to I At BTC or Bitcoin BTC to Show it is NOT the Only Version of Bitcoin

Yesterday this thread was highly upvoted on btc: Bitcoin user surprised he has to pay 12% fee on a video game key
While it's good to emphasize the absurdity of high network fees when we ourselves refer to the BTC blockchain as "Bitcoin" we work against ourselves and confuse people. This is what Core supporters talk about when they say Roger Ver is "scamming" people on Bitcoin.com. We understand why there can be a dispute over what Bitcoin actually is, and why Bitcoin Cash is the best representation of Bitcoin as started by Satoshi himself, but mainstream users won't.
It harms our efforts because all publications use the word "Bitcoin" and that's what early adopters, many of which are here now, recommended to help Bitcoin blow up in the first place. So when people look and see "Oh, Bitcoin is not dead but rising?! I want THAT!" Then they end up in the land of censorship, have a horrible experience with high transfer fees, hear about avoiding some scam called "BCash" because using BTC is what all the fuss and excitement is about, then they scratch their head and create posts like the one above!
Let's proactively change the narrative. Until we do Bitcoin BTC will continue rising while a better experience coin, BCH, struggles to catch up. The BTC chain is BINO, Bitcoin In Name Only. Let's shout it!
More: https://coinster.pro/content/56/why-the-name-bitcoin-belongs-to-bitcoin-cash
submitted by cryptos4pz to Bitcoincash [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Segwit developers discuss whether to remove references to low fees on bitcoin.org, claim to have no idea why fees went up

Bitcoin Segwit developers discuss whether to remove references to low fees on bitcoin.org, claim to have no idea why fees went up submitted by moresourdough to btc [link] [comments]

A 200-year-old idea offers a new way to trace stolen bitcoins | The idea is referred to as the First-In, First-Out (FIFO) rule from 1816, when applied to Bitcoin, is that the first coin that leaves a a Bitcoin address should be considered the same coin as the first one that went into it.

A 200-year-old idea offers a new way to trace stolen bitcoins | The idea is referred to as the First-In, First-Out (FIFO) rule from 1816, when applied to Bitcoin, is that the first coin that leaves a a Bitcoin address should be considered the same coin as the first one that went into it. submitted by LeafSamurai to savedyouaclick [link] [comments]

My username ydtm refers to a foundational principle behind Bitcoin: You Do The Math. Regarding the Craig Wright spectacle, I must say that Theymos and Luke-Jr are the ones who best reflect this idea of "you do the math" - while Gavin's blog post and comments (for whatever mysterious reasons) do not.

Craig Wright just performed a public spectacle, not a mathematical proof
It is totally irrelevant whether someone, anyone - be it Gavin or Satoshi or Galileo or the Pope - writes some blog post saying they personally "witnessed the keys signed and then verified on a clean computer that could not have been tampered with". [emphasis added]
Even the further detail which Gavin provides here...
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4hfyyo/gavin_can_you_please_detail_all_parts_of_the/d2plygg
...might be interesting from a sociological perspective, but from the perspective of mathematics, it is utterly meaningless.
People who know my post history know that I have supported Gavin's approach for "simpler and safer scaling now" via things like bigger blocks and Classic - and I have vehemently criticized Theymos for being tyrannical and Luke-Jr for being doctrinaire.
But regarding Craig Wright's extraordinary claims and his unorthodox methods for supposedly "proving" them, Gavin is wrong (for believing them - or, more precisely, for expecting us to believe his hearsay testimony about them) and people like Theymos and Luke-Jr - as well as many other people on these threads - are right (for questioning or simply ignoring Craig's claims and "demos").
This little demo in London is not, and has never been, the way a mathematical proof is done.
And, frankly, aside from any particular details of this so-called irrelevant pseudo-"proof", it is shocking that Gavin does not know this basic underlying fact about the methods of mathematics - which go back for centuries, long before we started doing mathematics with the assistance of electronic computing machines.
Someone (in this case, Gavin) talking about having witnessed some pixels on a screen driven by a heap of metal and silicon stirring "a vast sea of binary soup" on a machine running a von Neumann architecture manufactured by Intel or AMD using some "funky OpenSSL procedure" is not and has never been "mathematical proof" - and it is shocking that Gavin suddenly seems to have forgotten this well-known mathematical fact.
Gavin may "believe" that he "witnessed" a mathematical proof. And it's fine for him to write about this on his blog. But he should not present his witnessing and his blogging as some kind of "mathematical proof" for the rest of us.
Because (as many of us might remember from our high school geometry classes): mathematical proof is not and cannot be provided by a mere human witness or blog report or reddit comment.
As we all know, a person or a comment might talk about a proof, and might even (for convenience) provide a reference or link to the proof itself - so that we could all reproduce it.
But the "proof itself" must involve a publicly available method or algorithm which any interested party can access and repeat / reproduce on their own, to their own satisfaction.
And it would be shocking and appalling for someone who supposedly knows a bit about math (Gavin) to not understand this basic fact about mathematics. I don't know what the hell happened to Gavin here, but this sure is yet one more fascinating event in the ongoing drama of Bitcoin!
Proofs vs politics
If you're inclined towards tinfoil theories, then what we're seeing could also possibly be interpreted as an economic or political event (ie: a stunt?), when we remember that the proposition whose truth is supposedly being "proven" in this case happens to involve:
There could be enough drama and mystery here for us to engage in wild speculation and theorizing until the last Bitcoin is mined. But that's not what this post is mainly about. This post is about proof.
Everyone who took high school geometry knows what a "proof" is
As we know, a mathematical proof, unlike a political stunt or a public spectacle, is essentially an abstract artifact (in math it's often called a "theorem" or an "assertion") in association with one or more concrete (but, most importantly: public and reproducible) "realizations" or implementations demonstrating the "truth" of that theorem of assertion. By the way, all these various realizations or implementations (or proofs) are in some sense equivalent - even if they might happen to use different "languages" or formats.
The important thing of course is that a proof must be arbitrarily reproducible by anyone, using their own methods and tools - and hardware!
For example, some people might prefer to go through the steps of a proof on a laptop using a library written in C++ or Python, others might use the Coq theorem prover, and others might use pen-and-paper. Some people might use an algebraic approach, others might use a geometric approach, etc.
But the point is: a proof is just an abstract idea (theorem or assertion) plus the concrete implementation(s) which demonstrate its "truth" - with the implementation(s) getting done again and again, by anyone in the public who wants to - not just once on some laptop during some event in London before some hand-picked witness who got specially flown in for the occasion.
A "proof" must be public, repeatable, and reproducible
A proof is something you (can and should) do yourself.
You. The public. Everyone in their own way, using their own language, to repeatedly prove the same proposition, in their own way, to their own satisfaction, on their own device.
In order to verify that 32 + 42 = 52 you don't rely on a blog post from some guy who got flown to London and who personally "witnessed" it.
You prove it yourself, whichever way you know best - using a calculator, your laptop, your smartphone, chalk on a blackboard, pen and ink on back of a cocktail napkin, or scribbles drawn in the sand.
Or, in another situation, to verify that some software you downloaded is authentic, you grab some public keys off servers and you run some code to check some signatures, while of course taking reasonable steps to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks, ensure that your computer is virus-free, etc.
You Do The Math
What you do not do is "believe" the mathematical proof of the Pythagorean Theorem or the Quadratic Formula or someone's cryptographic signature simply because some well-known guy got flown to London and personally "witnessed" it "on a clean computer that could not have been tampered with".
Also, by the way, that "well-known guy" should be very careful how he writes about what he "witnessed":
Those are just reporting of something that Gavin says he saw. Mildly interesting - but mathematically irrelevant.
And it is very strange that Gavin is even posting them. You would that he has enough mathematical background to know that such communications, devoid of reproducible results, are meaningless.
We all need to be able to repeat the proof ourselves
Sometimes, if a proof involves lots of details or some tricky concepts, we could alternatively watch someone else do it - but there can't be anything "up their sleeve". They have to "show all their work" - to us.
For example, you can watch some Khan Academy YouTube videos that provide nice, easy-to-follow proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem or the Quadratic Formula.
These videos are quite satisfyingly convincing. For example, to prove the Pythagorean Theorem, they use a geometric approach where they break up a triangle into chunks, and then they move the chunks around to reposition them, so you, me, anyone, can literally (geometrically) see, and "prove", that how a2 + b2 = c2 (where a and b are the "legs" and c is the "hypoteneuse" of a right triangle).
In this approach, we are verifying everything ourselves. There is nothing "hidden" - there is nothing that even could be tampered with behind the scenes: the little triangles are all there in front of us. Those proofs on the Khan Academy YouTube channel are done in chalk before our eyes. Not behind the scenes, spitting out some result, on some computer that we merely believe "could not have been tampered with".
So, the essence of the meaning of "proof" is that anyone who is interested must able to conceptually go through the actual steps themselves - it's not about taking someone else's word for it.
Proof, like Bitcoin itself, is permissionless
"Proof" isn't about doing something behind a curtain (or on a chip on a computer in London) for a specially chosen audience.
"Proof" is about me and you and anyone else being able to repeat and reproduce the results ourselves.
Maybe Gavin himself did indeed "see" something, and as far as that goes, it's fine - for him. And of course he's entitled to write a post expressing his opinions and beliefs.
But that has nothing to do with mathematical proof for us, and it would be crazy (and very un-mathematical) of him to expect us to give any mathematical weight to his personal experiences and opinions and beliefs as expressed on his blog or in his comments.
Real mathematicians and programmers (and, presumably, Satoshi) already know all this
All over these subs, many people are saying that if Craig Wright wants to prove that he is Satoshi, then he should simply follow the standard procedures for proving this (from mathematics and public-key cryptography). And if not, GTFO.
And they're absolutely right.
Satoshi Nakamoto certainly knows the standard procedures and requirements of science and mathematics and public-key cryptography - and none of them have been followed in this weird farce: most importantly, the requirements that scientific and mathematical proof must be based on a permissionless, repeatable, reproducible procedure (and not some private performance).
A bizarre episode
Maybe eventually we'll get to the bottom of all the fascinating social or political or economic details behind this bizarre episode.
And if Bitcoin does turn out to be anti-fragile the way many of us believe, then hopefully someday we all might be able to look back on this strange day as yet another twist in the history of Bitcoin and cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin is about trusting math, not humans
I have no idea what's going on with Gavin. The fact that someone so central to Bitcoin development (and so prominent on one side of the scaling debates) has gotten involved with this whole weird Craig Wright spectacle is, shall we say, "very interesting" - and could be the basis for any number of wild speculative theories.
My own (admittedly somewhat tinfoil) theory would be that, even though we don't know what specifically is happening here, we can at least take this as one more suggestive indication that certain people seem to be trying very hard to do various things to the publicly visible developers of Bitcoin. Many devs seem to have been "neutralized" in various ways - whether co-opted by a corporation (like most of the Core devs now at Blockstream), or ostracized and hounded into rage-quitting (like Mike Hearn), or now (apparently) publicly duped and discredited (like Gavin).
Meanwhile, right now I'm just happy that people like Theymos and Luke-Jr (both of whom I've vehemently disagreed with in the past) - as well as many other people on these threads - understand and insist that the only way you can prove something in Bitcoin is if "you do the math" yourself.
submitted by ydtm to btc [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Segwit developers discuss whether to remove references to low fees on bitcoin.org, claim to have no idea why fees went up

Bitcoin Segwit developers discuss whether to remove references to low fees on bitcoin.org, claim to have no idea why fees went up submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

A 200-year-old idea offers a new way to trace stolen bitcoins | The idea is referred to as the First-In, First-Out (FIFO) rule from 1816, when applied to Bitcoin, is that the first coin that leaves a a Bitcoin address should be considered the same coin as the first one that went into it.

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 83%. (I'm a bot)
Bitcoin's blockchain provides inalterable evidence, stored on thousands of computers, of every Bitcoin transaction that's ever taken place.
Rather than try to offer any new detective tricks to identify the source of a Bitcoin transaction hiding behind a pseudonymous address, their idea instead redefines what constitutes a dirty bitcoin.
Based on a legal precedent from an 1816 British court decision, they posit that the first coin that leaves a Bitcoin address should be considered the same coin as the first one that went into it, carrying with it all of that coin's criminal history.
"The software we're going to publish will let you know whether your favorite bitcoin was ever owned by Ross Ulbricht or Mt. Gox," says Ross Anderson, the Cambridge computer science professor who leads the research group, referring to the convicted administrator of the Silk Road Bitcoin drug market and the first major Bitcoin exchange Mt. Gox, which went bankrupt in 2014 after being robbed of 850,000 bitcoins.
When the researchers tried out their FIFO analysis on Bitcoin's actual blockchain, they found that in massive thefts-like the 2012 heist that took 46,653 bitcoins from the cloud provider Linode, or the 2014 theft of 896 bitcoins from bitcoin "Bank" Flexcoin-they could create far tidier answers about where those stolen coins ended up than the haircut method could.
Using the FIFO method, they linked the Linode haul to fractions of tainted bitcoins at around 372,000 addresses, compared with 2.7 million tainted bitcoins with the haircut method.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: Bitcoin#1 coin#2 stolen#3 Taint#4 blockchain#5
Post found in /savedyouaclick.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

12-08 10:02 - 'I will refer you to a legitimate tool of hack which has the ideas And the logics which he will make use ethically in recovering your lost BTC quickly for you. He can be reached at [email protected] and there...' by /u/guitarpromaniac removed from /r/Bitcoin within 41-51min

'''
I will refer you to a legitimate tool of hack which has the ideas And the logics which he will make use ethically in recovering your lost BTC quickly for you. He can be reached at [email protected] and there will be proofs provided for the recovery work . Stay safe .
'''
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Author: guitarpromaniac
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Idea for refering to a small amount of bitcoin/highly valued cryptocurrency.

Since common amounts of btc and altcoins have multiple zeros in them an idea for referring to them could be as follows:
Instead of saying 'point zero zero nine' we could say perhaps 'two ohs nine' Two ohs referring to the number of zeros before the first number that isnt zero.
This could be used for ethereum, bitcoin, or any popular altcoin. Please feel free to share your ideas and/or what you use.
submitted by my-ancestors to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

08-08 09:12 - 'Are you referring to [link] / If you're referring to Bitcoin Cash, that's another project. / Calling Bitcoin Cash as Bcash makes you look ridiculous and dumb, as it looks like you have no idea what you're talking about.' by /u/keo604 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 12-22min

'''
Are you referring to [link]1
If you're referring to Bitcoin Cash, that's another project.
Calling Bitcoin Cash as Bcash makes you look ridiculous and dumb, as it looks like you have no idea what you're talking about.
'''
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Author: keo604
1: https://medium.com/@freetrade68/announcing-bcash-8b938329eaeb
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

Is the founder of Blockstream going senile in his old age?

Is the founder of Blockstream going senile in his old age? submitted by SweetSweetCrypto to btc [link] [comments]

Idea for refering to a small amount of bitcoin/highly valued cryptocurrency. /r/Bitcoin

Idea for refering to a small amount of bitcoin/highly valued cryptocurrency. /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

My mom just bought herself a Trezor One; What services/websites/advice would you recommend to give her an idea of crypto's various use cases?

Hey all! I first became interested in cryptocurrency in early 2017 as I'm sure many people did. I remember visiting my parents that October and just bombarding them with how excited I was, what an opportunity it was, yadda yadda yadda. The typical "I JUST GOT INTO CRYPTO AND NOW EVERYONE I KNOW MUST KNOW ABOUT IT" mentality. As one might expect ol' mama & papa were not super receptive but not necessarily dismissive.
...so color me surprised when, after briefly talking about crypto again with my mom today on the phone, she starts texting me asking about the difference between the Trezor One and the Model T. I thought she was trying to figure out a suitable gift for my birthday that's coming up soon until she started asking which one would be more suitable for a beginner. I suggested the One despite the pretty touchscreen on the Model T as it just felt like overkill. She's not gonna be on Binance juggling altcoins all over the place (at least I don't think so...) so I told her the Trezor One would be totally suitable for her to use and sure enough, she bought one!
I'm flabbergasted. She has NEVER shown any interest in crypto outside of me occasionally talking about a project I find interesting. She didn't say anything about trying to make money and I wasn't talking about altcoins pumping like crazy so she isn't doing it as some get rich quick scheme, she just...went ahead and bought herself a Trezor. She works at a bank for crying out loud. Did I mention I'm flabbergasted?
The whole situation is really exciting for me because I really do love my mom and we get along great but we share hardly any common interests so this could be a great opportunity to bring us closer together.
----
So as the title says, dear reader: What kinds of things would you recommend I show her? I'm planning on helping her set up the device when she gets it as well as sending her a small amount of BTC or LTC to play around with but despite my love of the stuff I'm blanking on what I could have her do with it that would really impress her or interest her. I was thinking to maybe start with something like Coinbase Earn because she could get a little bit of money and it could help her understand crypto assets that AREN'T Bitcoin. Thoughts? Ideas? Opinions?
For reference she lives in rural Indiana near Indianapolis and is fast approaching 60 years old. She loves horses, gymnastics, cats and dogs, and gluten-free food. She also loves her beautiful, beautiful son (or so I'm told).
Thanks!
LD
submitted by luscious_duncan to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

Attention incoming interns! Here's a list of TIPS I WISH I KNEW starting my intern year, some things you can start working on now and some less commonly discussed but very important parts of your job

It’s that time of year and yet again I’ve seen plenty of incoming interns asking what they can do to prepare. I wrote this post to share some tips for all of the not-exactly-medical stuff I wish I knew before I started intern year and to share a few things that interns can do before they start to feel like they’re well prepared for the long white coat.
As a quick background, I was a surgery intern in the first half of the 2010s and much of this is informed by my notes and memories from that time in addition to everything I’ve learned since, particularly about professionalism both in medicine and in the business world with work I’ve done in the healthcare startup arena. I’m also not perfect and very much a work in progress myself and, outside the intern-specific items here, I try to do most of these things myself—sometimes more successfully than others.
So take what you think are good ideas here, leave what you don’t think would be useful, and if anyone else has anything to add, please feel free to chime in.
TL;DR: Intern year is hard. Here are some not-so-commonly-disucussed tips that may help.

Mindset

1. Being an effective intern is, at its core, about being responsible, effective and reliable.

Your day to day responsibilities are nearly always dominated by the need to get things done and to do so in a manner that lets your other team members focus on their own roles and responsibilities. What about learning clinical medicine? You'll learn plenty and fast. Don't worry.
When reading through these tips below, view them from an angle of “would this help me develop an effective system for making sure everything gets done and nothing falls through the cracks?”

2. For your in-the-hospital life as well as your outside-the-hospital life, remember this one thing: you will forget.

You will be busy and have responsibilities in a way you likely have never experienced before. This will naturally make the day-to-day things in life more difficult than you’re used to so developing ways to outsmart your forgetful brain will pay off.

3. You are a professional now. This is your career. You’re in it.

It’s easy to view your life as a trainee as a sort of advanced student or something in between a student and a “real doctor”. But that’s not true. View yourself as a professional building your career. Your intern year is just the first step of that career. You’re a real doctor as much as any other now.

4. One of the hardest things about being an intern or resident is dealing with feelings of isolation. It will take work to actively manage and overcome those feelings.

Imposter syndrome, feeling like you don’t know what you’re doing or that you don’t belong, feeling like you’re not the person you used to be, that you don’t have time to do all the “normal” things that other people do, thinking your co-residents or attendings think you’re dumb, feeling that you don’t have time for friends/family/hobbies, ruminating on “what if I screw this up and hurt a patient?”, or “this doesn’t matter -- the patient is going to XX or YY anyway” etc are all common feelings and they all share the same undercurrent of feeling isolated in one way or another. You need to actively work to find ways to confront and overcome these feelings or else they will control you. When they control you, you’re burned out.
It may not seem like it at first, but nearly every single tip below is geared towards avoiding feelings of isolation. Feeling like you’re not in control of your finances will make you feel isolated. Feeling like you’re losing a handle on your relationships will make you feel isolated. Feeling like you’re behind on your email and haven’t done all the little things in life you need to do will make you feel isolated. Read these tips through that lens.

What you can do before you start

1. Organize and update your contacts. Seriously.

Here are some ways it can help you maintain and grow your relationships.
  • Use the ‘Notes’ feature in your contacts for everyone important in your life and all the new people meet.
    • You will forget your friends’ kids names and ages. Every time you get a birth announcement or see a post on social media, go to your friend’s contact, edit the notes and put in the info. Then, when you reach out to your friends, ask about their kids...by name.
    • You will forget your friends’ boyfriend/girlfriend/wife/husband/partner’s name, especially if you’ve never met them or haven’t seen them for a long time. Put their name in your friends’ card with a note like “Started seeing Sam in June 2020, he/she’s a software engineer”. Someone you know gets married? Add their wedding date to their card.
    • You will forget how you knew people in your contacts. Met at a conference? Was a medical student on your heme onc service? Friend-of-a-friend you met at a wedding? Someone shares an interest you have? Make a note in their contact card. Tip: these notes are for you, not them. So if someone reminds you of an actor, or didn’t stop talking about bitcoin, make a note. It will help because you will forget.
  • Tag your contacts or add them to lists and use those tags/lists to your advantage.
    • Make lists or tags for your family, your medical school friends, your undergrad friends, your coresidents, your attendings, your medical students, the hospitals you’ll be working at, etc. Put those lists or tags to use like this:
      • You will forget to stay in touch with people important to you. Set reminders in your phone for every week / two weeks / month, etc to pull up a list (family, medical school friends, etc), pick someone on that list you haven’t chatted with in a while and text them and ask them how they’re doing. Aim to start a conversation, ask about what’s happening in their life. Texts are more personal and meaningful than liking a post on social media or sharing a meme. Initiating conversations with your friends and family will help you feel connected and will increase the likelihood they reach out to you.
      • Don’t label your medical students like “MS3 Laura” or “Sub-I Juan”, etc. Label them with their full name and treat them like the colleagues they are. Put them on a list, clear it out next year if you want, but don’t treat them as “MS3 XXX“ or “MS4 YYY”. I’m sure you remember feeling like a nameless/faceless medical student at times in school and I’m sure you didn’t love it. So don’t repeat that behavior. Add a note or two about them while you’re at it. Take enough interest in your medical students to treat them well. You never know when or how you’ll cross paths with them again.
      • If you rotate through different hospitals, you will forget which “ED” or “PACU” or “nursing station 3rd floor” numbers are which. Tag them or put them on a list. It’ll make finding them when you need them much easier.

2. Use a good note taking app and a good task manager app to help with both your in-hospital life and your outside-of-the-hospital life.

Here are some ways to use a notes app.
  • Make a note for each rotation you’re on. Add in any unstructured tips as they come up, like “Send all of Dr. X’s patients home with Y”, “Use the call room in the basement outside of the locker room, passcode 1234”, “Park in the X lot on the weekends”, “Dr. A likes to manage Z with Y”, “The case manager, NAME, usually sits at the computer behind the 2nd floor nurses station”, etc. Don't overthink them, just write them down when they come up. Review those notes the next time you rotate through because you will forget all those little things and they will help you in the future.
  • Create a master grocery list of all things you typically get at the grocery store. Share it with a roommate/partner so they can keep it updated too. That way if you ever stop to pick something up, you can review the list to make sure there’s nothing you’ll forget.
    • Make master lists for other things in your life too like “packing for a conference”, “packing for a family trip”, “Target/Wal-Mart household master list” so you can quickly review anytime something comes up so you minimize the chance of forgetting something
  • Make notes for all of the other stuff you have to manage in your life like your car, your apartment/house, your loans, etc and update them every time you work on that thing. Change your loan repayment? Add it to the note. Have to get your brakes fixed? Add to the note where you got it done, how much it cost, etc. Talk to your landlord about fixing the shower? Add it to the note. Have to call the medical board to sort something out with a license? Add it to the note.
  • I like two note apps on iOS: Bear for personal notes since it’s fast and has great tagging and Apple’s Notes app for shared notes
Pick a good task manager app and use it for all the things in your life that aren’t your day-to-day work
  • Cousin getting married and you can go to the wedding? Make tasks to ensure your time off, book your travel, buy a gift, rent a hotel room, etc. Then put all the relevant info into your note because...you will forget.
  • Pandemic is over and you get to present a poster at a conference? Make tasks to review your draft with your coauthors, print your poster, book your travel, submit your reimbursement, etc. Then put all the relevant info into a note. Otherwise, you’ll forget.
  • I like Things and have also liked OmniFocus. There is a ton of content on how to set one of these things up for productivity so review it and use it YouTube search

3. Take charge of your finances

When I was an intern, I figured all I had to do was pay my loans and not go into more debt. I wish I had done the following instead:
  1. Read these two books: The White Coat Investor and I Will Teach You To Be Rich. Both are very good and have different strengths. The WCI is directly applicable to you and will help educate you in ways medical school didn’t about your financial future. IWTYTBR is much more of a “millennial” book but it’s very good for explaining big concepts and for providing a system to set yourself up for success. They’re both easy and relatively quick reads and don’t require any financial background. WCI is fine as an e-book but IWTY has a bunch of dialog boxes that make the e-book a poor experience, get a physical new or used copy.
  2. Set up a budget. I use and swear by You Need A Budget. It’s the best money I spend every year. Their system is easy and straightforward and it doesn’t take long to get the hang of it. I can’t recommend it highly enough.

4. Update your CV now and keep it updated regularly

You will no doubt have to share your CV with someone at some point whether it’s for fellowship or a research project or any number of things. The time to work on it is not when someone says “can you share your CV?” -- that’s a recipe for omissions, typos and mistakes. The only thing you should be doing every time you share your CV is giving it a quick once-over to make sure you don’t spot any mistakes and to make sure it’s up to date
There are plenty of templates online and your training institution may even have a preferred format somewhere on their website. Your ERAS application will give you a good head start but most of your medical school CV lines will either be condensed or removed all together unless something was particularly notable. You can almost always find example CVs online from senior people in your department or institution with a quick web search -- use a few as a guide
Set a reminder / task to update your CV at regular intervals. Quarterly is good, yearly at least. Save new versions of it each time so you can refer to the old ones if you need to and name them in a way to let you know you’re always sharing the most recent version, e.g., LASTNAME_FIRST NAME_CV_2020-06. You will forget if the one marked “CV” only is the right one you want to share.

5. Subscribe to a couple of newsletters to stay up to date with the world outside of your hospital

  • For general news, your preferred newspaper probably has a daily email briefing. Otherwise, Axios AM/PM and Politico’s Playbook are both very good quick reads to stay up to date with current events.
    • Keep up with healthcare news so you know what’s going on in the healthcare system broadly
      • Axios Vitals is a great, quick daily healthcare news update
      • Politico’s Pulse and Morning eHealth are both very good and have quick facts at the beginning if you just want to skim
      • Rock Health’s Rock Weekly is a decent summary of each week in the healthcare startup and technology world
Pick a few of these and aim to get through them each day. If you can’t get through them, unsubscribe to the ones you think are least relevant to you so you never feel “behind” in staying up with the news. You can breeze through the few you pick in a few minutes here and there throughout the day -- don’t make it any harder than that to feel like you’re “up to date” on the news.

General tips for maintaining relationships

  • For any romantic relationship, do these things if you don’t already:
 1. Make a rule: no phones at the table. * Don’t put your phone on the table face-up. Don’t put your phone on the table face-down. Keep your phone off the table and set to silent. * Focus on the person in front of you and show them you care about them by paying attention to them. We all know what it feels like to be with someone more interested in their screen than in interacting with you. If you’re on call, say “sorry, I’m on call, I may have to check something here and there”, apologize if you do check it and then put your phone away. 2. Make another rule: no phones in bed * Same principle as at the table. Want to feel like two strangers just passing through life who just so happen to share the same bed? Wake up, reach for your phone and scroll through your feeds like a zombie before getting out of bed. Same idea before bed. Your phone can wait. 3. If you’re at the point where you share finances, set a regular meeting to review how you’re doing. * Ideally, this is a “red, yellow or green” meeting and should only take a few minutes. Money can be a big conflict issue for relationships and avoiding talking about money is a surefire way to eventually turn to conflict. If you have a budget and shared goals, this should be quick. * A monthly check-in is good. Create a recurring calendar event, attach the shared notes or spreadsheet document you use, add your goals for the meeting and honor the meeting when it comes around. 
  • Eat with people who are important to you, if you can.
    • There’s something about sharing a meal that’s special in human nature. Friends who are important to you? Partners? Mentors you’re looking to get to know better after you’ve had a few chats? Try to eat with them when you can. And keep your phone off the table.
    • The same idea works with your coresidents and teams in the hospital. Eat with them if you can. Eating with others builds, strengthens and maintains relationships. Keep your phone off the table if you can.
Think about it this way: who would you consider a better mentor, the person you’ve met with a few times in their office where they sit behind their desk and you in front of them while they glance at their computer screen every time it pings or the person who’s invited you to get coffee or food and they kept their phone away the whole time? Now turn that around and realize the power of the message you can send to people you care about by trying to eat with them and show them they have your full attention.

Hospital tips

1. Learn to think about tasks as a continuum from start to finish instead of as a binary 'done/not done'.

Let’s say you have to order a CT for a patient of yours.
  • Instead of marking the task as complete the second you place the order for the CT, recognize that the whole task is not just placing the order, but also knowing when your patient is going down to the scanner, when they’re back, when the CT is up in the system, when the report is up and also that you’ve looked at the CT yourself and have read the report.
  • When your senior or attending asks you, “Did patient X get their CT?”, a not-so-great answer is “Yes” or “No”. A better answer is “they’re down at the scanner now” or “the scan’s done but it hasn’t been read yet. Want to look at it?” or “Yes, it’s negative for XXX but did show YYY”.
Whatever system you eventually adopt for your day-to-day task management in the hospital, whether it’s a list or index cards or a printed signout sheet, make sure you’re tracking both when orders go in, when they’re complete, when they’re cancelled, etc. Just marking things as complete once you place the order isn’t enough.

2. Signout is taken, not given.

What I mean by this is that when you take signout, that means you’re accepting responsibility for those patients. They might be your patients, you might be cross-covering, it doesn’t matter. What matters is that when those patients are your responsibility, it’s your responsibility to get what you need to know to take care of them.
Is someone signing out to you in a hurry and not giving you what you need? Ask them for that relevant past medical history, those exam findings, and so on. It’s not enough for the person handing off to say “we’re worried about x or y”, you’ve got to follow that up with “in case of x or y, is there a plan for what the team wants me to do?”. Get the answers you need.
A lot of covering patients on call is playing defense whereas the primary team generally plays offense. But that doesn’t mean you can play defense in isolation. The last thing you want is for the primary team to feel surprised by your choices.
 * Here’s two ways for the above example to go when turning the patients you were covering back over the next day or whatever: 1. You: “For patient so-and-so, you said you were worried about x or y. Y happened.” Them: “What did you do?”. You: “Z”. Them: “Shit, my attending’s not gonna like that”. 2. You “Y happened so I did A like you said, it went fine and here’s the current status”. Them: “Great, thanks” * See the difference? 
  • Along the lines of taking responsibility for those patients, that means that if you couldn’t get the information you needed at signout then you have to go and see those patients and get the information you need yourself.
    • You’ll hear this idea said a bunch of different ways like “trust but verify”, “trust no one” and your comfort level will change over the year as you become more confident and comfortable. But always error on the side of going to see the patient and getting your own information at the start.

3. If you will be miserable without something when you’re in the hospital, bring it with you. You won’t reliably be able to find it at the hospital every time you need it.

  • Need coffee otherwise you turn into a demon? Bring it with you. You never know when you’ll get caught doing something and won’t be able to run to the cafeteria for your fix.
  • On call overnight and know you need food so you don’t go insane? Bring it with you. Here’s a hospital food rule: never rely on the hospital's ability to feed you. The hospital will let you down sooner or later, I guarantee it.
  • Know you always get cold on call? The day you forget your jacket/sweatshirt is the day you won’t be able to find a spare blanket in the hospital to save your life. Put a backup in your locker (if your hospital respects you enough to give you one).

Miscellaneous productivity, professionalism and lifestyle tips

1. Aim to “touch” everything only once

  • Example: your physical mail. You know, the stuff made of dead trees that accumulates in that box you check every once in a while. For every piece of mail you get, you should either trash it, file it, or act on it. Don’t touch it until you’re ready to do one of those things.
  • Example: your email. Either delete it, archive it, reply to it or do the thing it’s telling you to do right away. Don’t fall into the trap of using your inbox as a to-do list -- that’s a recipe to get burned. Use a task manager for your to-do list and aim to keep your inbox at zero. Realize that email’s true power is communication and use it as a communication tool and nothing else.
  • I’ll use the example of going to a wedding again as something to “touch once”. Aim to accomplish all the tasks at once or at least create tasks and reminders to complete those tasks all in one go. Respond to the RSVP, create the calendar invite with all the information from the invitation, share the calendar event with your date, book your travel, book your hotel, book your rental car, buy your gift from the registry and set a reminder to get your suit/dress cleaned a few weeks ahead, etc.

2. Lean to use your calendar as a tool

Professionals in the “real world” tend to live and die by their calendars. Some people, especially many senior people in medicine, don’t manage their own calendars. But you manage yours. With it you can:
  • Make sure all events—even small ones like dates or errands you want to run—have locations so all you have to do is click the location for directions
  • Send invites to friends / family / coworkers for anything you talk about doing that has the relevant info
  • Make reminders for yourself to prepare for upcoming events, i.e.., don’t count on seeing your parents’/spouses’/whomever’s birthday “coming up” to remind you to get a gift or send a card. Create an event two weeks before their birthday that says “Buy Mom a birthday card”, set it to repeat yearly and buy a card when it comes up, send it a few days later and don’t worry that it won’t get there in time.

3. Learn to use email well

Ever get an email from someone and feel their tone was terse, condescending or rude? Don’t be that person. Error on the side being polite and professional and writing in complete sentences without textspeak. It’s not hard — you type fast, even with your thumbs, I’m sure of it.
  • Learn to communicate effectively. Keep it short but not terse. State why you’re writing to someone, be clear if you’re asking a question, and think about it this way: “How am I making it as easy as possible for this person to understand why I’m emailing them and do what I’m asking them to do?
  • Don’t use a canned salutation like “Best, NAME” or even worse: “Best, INITIALS”. Use your salutation to continue to communicate your message and remember that politeness and professionalism extend through your signature.
    • I don’t know why “Best,” is so common in medicine but it’s meaningless, unthoughtful, inherently passive aggressive and I seriously read it as if the person writing it were signing off by saying “Go f*ck yourself,”. Same thing for “Regards,” and its ilk, any abbreviation like “vr,” or any form of cutesy quote.
    • Write your salutation fresh each time. Did you ask someone for something? Say “Thank you for your help”. Are you writing someone senior to you and want to sound somewhat formal? “Sincerely,” never goes out of style. Are you sharing information and essentially writing a memo? Use “Please let me know if you have any questions”. Your salutation is communication, treat it that way.
    • Sign with your name, not your initials. Signing with initials is a common way senior people will try to remind you they’re senior to you. If you do it, it’s like you’re trying to prove you’re a Cool Guy Big Shot too. It never comes across well -- even for those senior people. Initials are terse. Lowercase initials are even terser. Although they may look different at first glance, all initial signatures functionally come across as ‘FU’. Write your name.
      • If it’s a few rounds back and forth of email, it’s normal drop salutations and signatures and treat email more like texting. Keep using complete sentences without textspeak, though. I promise you’ll come across better that way.
    • Use the ‘signature’ feature of your email client to share your professional details and contact information
      • Your institution (not department) will hopefully have a format for this that’s standardized and includes minimal or no graphics. If it doesn't, then I feel sorry for all the inevitable IT headaches you will eventually endure at your institution since they clearly underfund and undervalue contemporary IT and professional services. It’s the wild west out there so find some good examples of clean, professional signature formats and make one for yourself.
      • Note: this signature lives below your salutation and sign off. It’s essentially the letterhead for your email that lets your recipient fill in the details you may not otherwise provide like your department, mailing address or fax number. It’s not a replacement for signing off of your communication professionally.
    • Never use bold, italics, underlines or different font sizes in your emails. They only make emails harder to read and jumble your message.
  • If you want to highlight something, put it in a numbered or bulleted list.
    • If you can’t communicate what you want with 2-3 bulleted points, then email is not the right medium to use. Do you like reading long emails? Of course you don’t. Write a memo, attach it as a PDF or shared doc and use the email to tell your recipients to review the attachment.
  • You will eventually, in some way or another, ask someone to introduce you to one of their contacts and or refer you for something. Learn how to write a good forwardable email that utilizes the double opt-in concept and how to make it easy on the person doing you the favor. Read more here, here and here.
    • While you’re at it, understand the power of using CC and BCC to communicate effectively.
  • Aim to answer all emails written directly to you within 24 hours.
    • If you can’t respond fully right away, respond briefly saying you got the note and that you’ll work on it and get back to them. Set a reminder or create a task to do or review the thing and get back to them once you’ve done it.
    • Do you hate being left on read in text? You do it in email every time you don’t respond to someone in a timely fashion. It’s better to share a quick, “I got it and I’m working on it message” then not replying until days or weeks later.

4. Don’t let someone else’s negative energy and/or anxiety transfer to you

You will frequently experience things like this in the hospital:
  • A co-resident disagrees with a management decision made at rounds and mentions that so-and-so is an idiot. So-and-so probably isn’t an idiot. Your co-resident probably isn’t an idiot either. Form your own opinions from your own experiences.
  • A nurse pages you with a tone that says “THIS IS REALLY BAD”. It might be, go and see. And on your way, stay calm and go over the steps in your head of what you’d do if it is, in fact, REALLY BAD. But don’t freak yourself out before you even get to the room. You won’t be able to make decisions with a clear head if you’re already worked up.
  • You’re a surgery intern and all your patients are normally on the med-surg floor. Every once in a while, one goes somewhere like heme-onc if the med-surg floor is full. Someone on your team says something like “great, now they’re going to screw up our patient”. Recognize that that floor isn’t full of terrible nurses and may just have less experiences with lines and drains and that the best thing you can do is go down there, talk to the nurse and say “here’s what we want to be called about” and “this thing may look bad but it usually isn’t and we don’t need to be called, here’s why”, and so on. Doing things like this will mean you get fewer calls. Fewer calls are good.
  • Your attending is having a bad day and you’re not enjoying your interactions with them. Don’t let that make you have a bad day too. Medicine is hard enough as it is, stick to your own bad days instead adopting other people’s. Then pull up your friend list, text a buddy and feel better.

5. Don’t neglect your physical health. Trying to eat well and stay active are even more important when you’re insanely busy.

The #1 thing you can do to help your waistline is cook your own food and pack your own meals. It doesn’t matter what you cook or how good of a cook you are, as long as you’re aiming to pack meals that an adult would eat, it will be healthier than takeout and cafeteria food. It’s better for portion control, you control all the ingredients and you get a sense of satisfaction for being on the ball. It’s better in every way.
I know it’s not realistic to always prep and pack your own food on the busiest of services but you should try to hit at least a percentage like 25% or 50% of your meals. There are no lost causes in your own health.
It will be hard to exercise and work out. You should still try to do it anyway. You will go long stretches without exercising at times. Don’t beat yourself up about it. Every day is a chance to do the thing you want to do so get back out there.

6. If your social profiles are private, consider doing some housekeeping and making them public.

Instead of thinking about them as a liability to be that needs to be hidden, think about them as a narrative you can control.
Nothing is private on the internet. Even your private profile. You never know who knows someone you know or what may get screenshotted and shared down the line.
It’s natural to run a web search on anyone you’re meeting for a date, interviewing with for a job, or researching in general. When you search your own name, what comes up? What do you think when you’re searching for someone and they have a private page? Do you ever click on a few links to see professional stuff from LinkedIn, and then some social pages to see what else you learn? So does everyone else.
Use your social pages to put forward a version of you that shows who you are, shows some interests true to yourself, makes you seem like a totally normal and reliable person (which is exactly what any potential date, partner, fellowship director or hiring manager is asking themselves about you) and doesn’t share enough information to let a patient show up at your door.
Medicine lags behind other industries with people still commonly hiding behind private pages. In the tech world, it’s more strange to not have a public page. A private page says more about you that you might want to hide red flags whereas a public page says “go ahead and look, you won’t find any red flags”. One is much more powerful than the other.

Closing and something to read

When you view your professional life, it’s natural to view your professional relationships as being a binary one between patient and physician. That’s certainly essential and certainly important, but as a professional you now have relationships to consider with so many more types of people: co-residents, faculty in your department, faculty in other departments, administrators, support staff, medical students, and so on.
Just as you had to learn how to work with patients, you will have to learn to work with all of the other people in your professional life. Truly effective professionals will treat all interactions importantly and give thought and consideration to each one. All these interactions and relationships will all affect your day-to-day experience, your well-being and, ultimately, your professional experience.
You will find yourself being not just responsible for your patients, but also for yourself, your career and your relationships. It takes effort to succeed in all of those areas. And even with effort, sometimes you’ll be winning in an area and losing in others. And in a few months it will be different -- that’s just life.
I want you to consider looking outside of books and resources written specifically for physicians when you’re trying to tackle these issues inside the hospital and out.
Medicine is a much-smaller-than-you-realize bubble with a long history of personality-driven examples of “that’s just the way we do it” or “that’s how we’ve always done it”. There are good books about medicine out there, to be sure, but you’ll benefit more professionally by learning from the wide world outside of hospitals since there are quite simply many more successful and accomplished people who’ve written great resources for all aspects of professional life that medicine tends to ignore.
I’d recommend you start with this book: Andy Grove’s High Output Management (a review by another Valley titan here). Andy escaped communist Hungary, taught himself English and rose to be CEO of Intel and went on to be a sage of Silicon Valley before he passed. This book is a how-to guide for how to be an effective professional in an organization (hint: you're now a professional in an organization) and if you’ve enjoyed this post at all, you’ll love this book. You may think that this book applies to ‘managers’ and ‘business’ and not medicine but you couldn’t be more wrong. Although it was probably written around the time you were born, nearly everything in this book is a lesson that directly applies to your professional life in medicine and when you start seeing it, you’ll feel like you’re in The Matrix.
Congratulations! You've worked hard to get here. Be proud of yourself, your degree, your long white coat and be the best doctor you can be.
submitted by kiteandkey to Residency [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin challenged my comprehension of money. and from that, governance too

Social Media hacking jokes aside for today, I thought to share a thought experiment I had on how bitcoin fundamentally challenged the way I view money forever.
I was always told throughout life and even in school that money distributed by the government, managed by the government, but used amount the populus. It wasn't until I was 17 in my senior year where I learned about the in-depth concepts of money with topics such as Federal Reserve Banking (How banks make money), taxes, debt, and fiscal and monetary economy. What's funnier is that when I was 14 I heard about bitcoin, but I thought it was just an idea for some far off technology like Nuclear Fusion or Astro mining. So I'm happy to state I learned more about bitcoin before I learned about my own government monetary system. Unfortunately, It would not be for another 2 years before I learn about cryptocurrency and blockchain entirely and another few months before I can actually buy some.
It was at the moment when I fully understood the concepts of bitcoin where I fell in love with it, the idea that NO government, company, or bank could just step in and take your money. No overdrafts, chargebacks, or no 3-5 days deposits. It is great. I get excited to the point I share all I can to people around me about the concept and yet they are confused like a child learning a new language because the concept of true financial responsibility and digital sovereignty can be complex to comprehend. Many of them refer to the same statements: "Money should be protected and held by the bank so I trust that it will forever be there". As I think of it more I start to think of ways how blockchain technology as a whole can be implemented into fintech (or even become the new fintech). Henry Ford once said that
" It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning."
It is merely with the introduction of bitcoin and decentralized finance tools when this quote incubates into fruition. Cryptocurrency as a whole puts the individual in power with the same banking tools as the whole banking collective operates on. I agree that there are many people who are fed up with the banks, and their practices but at the same time those people are even more scared to assume their own financial control due to immense responsibilities the bitcoin introduces (private key, cognitive understanding of the industry and tech). Yes, banks are here to provide a service to the public ease and use, but therein lies the question of how much freedom do people really want when they realize that they are also baring even more responsibilities than they are used to. Great power comes with great responsibility. The more financial freedom (I'm not talking about in dollar amounts, but security and accessibility ) you have over your wealth the more responsibility is needed to maintain it. So then more so this brings furthermore changed my perception that I don't have to be so reliant on centralized parties with my money, but I can own my money on the blockchain and send it anywhere where in the world as I deem fit.
So this brings to my thoughts of how would blockchain systems work in government and laws. The laws are barely adapted to handle the internet as is; now they are further behind to handle blockchain. With coronavirus going around this is a testament to show how we are becoming stronger digital society. I have not been out of my home in the past few days, and most of the older ways of doing things are becoming challenged with the introduction of new technologies. The only thing that defines our governments are the lands in which was founded, discovered, or concurred by winning factions and ideals that ultimately curated most of the cultures we see today. We can speak to anyone we can on the internet in a matter of seconds, make a full-time living, we can buy nearly anything and get it delivered on the same day or week, and be associated with communities that align with our interest all online. So when these apps have more data and international relations than the governments we reside, can governments be more than just "land"?
Finally, this brings into question Facebook and Libra. Facebook is one of the largest public multi-national countries on this planet, and libra in eyes of many just a software update. However, Libra shined a light on so many things I've always wondered. With as powerful as Facebook is that probably knows more about you than your government, and has more international relationships with more countries than your government, if/whenever libra is released, this now puts a corporate entity in charge of your money. And As they say, libra existing on blockchains, really can't be stopped if ever it's released. Sure governments can be banned and sue Facebook all they want, but if there are people using it, the damage is done, they can't shut down Facebook without causing an economic collapse probably one worse than the great depression. Facebook is just too big to fail. Google, Amazon are other companies seeking to challenge governance by cities for their corporate entities and employees. They most likely won't be here in the USA too much regulation, but someone where like Africa or even cities on water .
All in all, as I leave, Everything I knew about finances such as mortgages, paychecks, loans, mediums of exchange, trade, and banking tools are all fundamentally challenged by the introduction of bitcoin. The power lies in those who own the system, and when no one owns the system, but everyone manages it, the real power becomes invested back into the people. With this knowledge, I know that I am truly more powerful than I thought I was, and you should feel empowered as well. Sure the infrastructure may take time before things become convenient enough for wide-scale adoption, but we are the founding fathers and mothers of the first generation in the true power of decentralized tech. We are the ones that decide on how the first implementation of this tech should be used, and that's all by experimentation. I agree that it will be a daunting task and scary for those who are not familiar with this. Like all things that exist it starts with experimentation.
submitted by tycooperaow to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

TIFU by getting scammed

TlDR I thought it would be a good idea to invest in some guy's Instagram pitch. Turned out to be a scam, and now I probably won't go to college.
I guess for some backstory, I (21M) am an aspiring college student who is planning to go to college this fall, and have been working to do so, but also been laid off due to COVID.
So I guess this happened today, but started a week ago. I was approached on Instagram, by this guy who is a broker for Avalon Markets. He found me on Instagram because I follow a lot of business/entrepreneur accounts.
He told me it was a good investment, and I was very skeptical. I asked how he would do it, I asked for references from people he had helped before. The references all said that he is a good person and that he is not a scammer.
It would be a foreign investment, and it honestly was a pain for me to get it done. The guy said that everything would be easier to be done in Bitcoin. I agreed to pay the $800. I paid $100 first as a test to see if the money would go to my Avalon Market account, and it did.l. so then I paid the rest of the $700. Then several days later, I was told that I needed to deposit more money so that I could continue trading and to withdraw the money eventually. The amount needed was almost the same amount of money I had saved up for college. I was very frustrated as I wasn't told about this before hand, but I begrudgingly did as was told. I deposited the money to the company's "Bitcoin account".
As I was frustrated I just wanted to withdraw my money and leave, after the trade had been finished. When I was finally ready to withdraw the money, I saw that I needed to pay an international fee of $6,500 way more than I had. But the fee also needed to be paid in Bitcoin. I had no idea about this fee, as the guy hadn't told me about it until the very end when I received a confirmation email about withdrawing the money.
I didnt have $6,500, and I did some more research and I (and my parents) have come to the conclusion that I have been scammed and I have almost no money saved up.
I don't know how I can pay for college, I don't know how I will be able to live, and now I don't know what I will do with my life.
submitted by tuckererer to tifu [link] [comments]

Reactive Abuse - Why you should know about it (LONG personal story of abusive relationship within)

I just learned this term today and I felt like Andy crawling out of the pipe full of crap and being washed by the rain in the movie Shawshank Redemption.
So, if you've ever been in an abusive relationship and questioned whether you did anything wrong, I encourage you to read this and research reactive abuse. (https://breakthesilencedv.org/reactive-abuse-what-it-is-and-why-abusers-rely-on-it/).
My ex and I were together for almost 3 years. He was amazing when we first met. Very active, friendly, outgoing, ATTRACTIVE, all things I'd always wanted in an SO but couldn't really find in a bundle. Until we moved in together.
5 months into dating, he tells me he'd struggled with addiction in the past (cocaine & adderall) but that he'd been clean for a year. I was taking diet pills to suppress my appetite (legitimately prescribed). He knew & it hadn't been an issue. Anyway, I get to work one morning and notice the bottle, which I kept in my car, had 2 pills left. There should have been at least 15.
It never occurred to me to suspect him, but eventually I texted him to ask if he knew what happened. He immediately apologized, cried, basically didn't let me react and got super mad at himself. I learned later that this is actually a manipulation tactic: they're so hard on themselves so that you end up feeling bad for them & consoling them. It worked on me.
That day, he buys a lockbox so I can keep the pills and I start using it. Well, 2 weeks later I have to go out of town for a week. He asks me if he can drive my car while I'm gone because his was broken and he was in the process of buying a new one. I say yes. He drives me to the airport but I end up forgetting my pills in my car (stupid, I know, but it was like 4 am and I hadn't slept well). I call him to tell him, because the last time he told me that he didn't think I'd notice the pills were gone. In my mind, I'm thinking "if I tell him, it will help him stay accountable". We talk throughout the trip, I check in on him via phone, all goes well. I get back home and the pills are gone. Again.
I'm pissed at this point, and we get into an argument. But this time around, he's mad at me. He says it's my fault for leaving them out and how could I be so irresponsible and jeopardize his recovery? At this point, I kind of back off because I start to feel guilty. From then on, whenever the pills were brought up in an argument, he'd always blame me for it, and was super dismissive, like "yeah, yeah, I stole your pills, big deal, it was your fault anyway".
Living together was rough, because he was FILTHY. I'd seen his place before we moved in (he lived with roommates), and he was very respectful of their mutual spaces & kept them clean. I think he felt like because he was dating me and we were a team, he could drop the ball and I'd be there to pick up the slack. Or say I was being too demanding.
It was getting so bad that we would fight nonstop--I mean, he'd leave dishes in the sink for days, food on the floor, beer bottles everywhere, spit bottles (he dips) everywhere. He had a mole on the back of his neck that he picked until it bled. Well, there was blood everywhere--his clothes, the brand new couch we bought together, doors, walls, pillows, comforter. When I got mad, he'd just shut down and leave.
I'd thought it would be a good idea to get a credit card and add him as an authorized user, because he had bad credit from not paying a CC that he forgot about. We agreed that we'd only use that card for mutual expenses, like bills or groceries. Well, he ended up putting 2k on the card ($600 alone were for a suit for his brother's wedding, $100 were for bitcoin), which really screwed with my credit score. Every time I asked him about the money, he'd get mad and yell, telling me he'd "pay me back when he could" and how heartless I was being because I knew he didn't have the money and was stressing him out.
For reference, I am all by myself and have no family. His family is rich (like, trust fund rich) and his grandfather paid for college & first car for all his grandkids (also for their first HOUSE). I know that doesn't mean that he'd feel comfortable asking his family for money, but he also knew that I couldn't afford to not pay my CC bill--and his family could have helped him. I had no one to help me.
Anyway, we started getting into these fights late at night, after he'd been drinking. Here's where the reactive abuse part comes in. On several occasions, in the middle of a fight, he'd cross some serious lines--making fun of my mom for having an abortion, calling her a whore, threatening to have me deported (I'm an immigrant), telling me that the reason my father was/is emotionally distant is that I'm so broken that not even my parents could love me & everyone will leave me, etc.
Now, at first, it would just wound me. These were things shared in confidence, and he used them to attack me. After the arguments were over, he wouldn't even apologize. His reason? OF COURSE I should know that he didn't mean those things, and I obviously had to know that he was sorry.
Well, after a few of these I started to get angry and used his own trauma to hurt him. I'm better at it than he is, so my words usually cut him more deeply than his cut me. At that point, he'd usually start recording (or make me believe that he was recording) and then threaten to send the recording to my boss and friends.
I snatched his phone from his hand once, and ran to the door. He pinned me by the throat until I gave him the phone back. He's 6ft and muscular, so I couldn't move or breathe. Within 30 seconds, he denied choking me and has yet to acknowledge it (it's been almost 2 years since). Instead, if I ever brought it up, he would get FURIOUS with me for "making things up" and "gaslighting" him. At some point, a few days after that incident, he said something about my mom and I was so mad that I slapped him, twice. (He kept taunting me to do it again, but I was able to get ahold of myself and stop.)
I said a lot of screwed up things about him and his family, and I truly regret saying them. After the fog had cleared from each argument, though, he'd deny whatever awful things he'd done or said to me, and instead focused on what I had done or said, calling me the abuser. I always felt like I couldn't really hold him accountable without acknowledging that I had abused him, too, and I felt like the shittiest person. I thought, well, since I also said some screwed up things to him, this is my fault too. What I didn't realize is that when I lashed out, it was in response to him and it was when I felt trapped or cornered and needed a barrier to protect me from his insults. I still wish I hadn't stooped to that level, but I understand now that reactive abuse is a thing that happens, and that abusers will use that against you to convince you that you're to blame and manipulate you.
It was like dealing with Bruce Banner and the Hulk. Banner is not a bad person, and if he could just be that way all the time, then he'd be a good partner. But he randomly and often has "Hulk episodes", so I know it's not healthy or safe to try to make that work. He's been completely out of my life for a month now, but I know his reddit username and occasionally look at what he's posted (he doesn't know mine). The other day I saw that he replied to someone on AskMen about disclosing past trauma, and he went on and on about how his ex (me) weaponized that trauma and used it to hurt him during arguments. He got a lot of sympathy points and comments, and the whole time I kept thinking of what a huge bully he was to me and all the emotional damage he inflicted. And the worst part is that I bet he genuinely believes he was the victim, because being the victim means he doesn't have to apologize, change or fix anything about himself.
In conclusion, reactive trauma is a thing, and now I feel like less of a monster, and less guilty (though not less sorry) for the way I acted in that relationship. I hope that knowing this helps me heal and move on, because that shit is hard.
submitted by TheGellerCup to FemaleDatingStrategy [link] [comments]

I just started using and selling on paxful and my bank just called me to tell me my bank account is closed

A financial analyst from us bank called me today to tell me that my account will be closed because of funds being deposited into my account through zelle were deemed as fraudulent. They are also going to take away any money i made. So essentially I'm going to be losing a ton of money. This is my only bank account and I have no idea what to do. Sites like paxful are completely legal. I was vending bitcoin and making transactions through zelle, only releasing bitcoin after funds were deemed as deposited. How is this possible? How was I supposed to know that the money coming in was fraudulent?

***Update: so at this point the only way i can get access to the bank account is if the branch manager where I first enrolled with us bank lifts the lock. I am calling her tomorrow, which is in a few hours. Any suggestions on how I should I approach the phone call?
****Update 5/21/2020: I called the branch and they said the manager isn't going to be available till tuesday because she's on vacation. I have rent due on saturday so I told them if we don't remove this lock I'm going to call the police.
*****Update 5/21: One of the local branch manager stepped in and gave me a call back. Did not go well. Said that a decision has been already made to close the account. I asked him by who and when and he just kept saying a decision has been made to close the account over and over again. I called into support and they said they don't see a decision noted on the account yet. Maybe I should wait for the original branch managers to get back from vaca?
*****Update 5/22: Received this notification from coinbase today: "Your recent purchase failed. Until resolved, your ability to trade and transact is disabled.After 5 days, we will automatically sell cryptocurrency in your account to collect any outstanding payments." This is regarding me trying to buy 1000 worth of bitcoin through ach transfer earlier this week before lock happened. I spoke with a us banker and she said that the 1000 is still posted as paid on my account. If it didn't go through coinbase, wouldn't it be credited back to my bank account? Also received an email from coinbase today: "Due to suspicious activity on your account, we have increased the holding time before you can withdraw your funds by 9 business days. This is meant to protect you against fraud by ensuring that you authorized this purchase. No action is required on your part." I am confused as to what coinbase has to do with any of this other than me simply buying bitcoin on there.
There are a few of you that recommended I stop into the bank in person. I am not in Iowa. I am in Washington state. The only way i can contact original branch is over the phone. That branch manager is gone till Tuesday. However, that branch had me speak with one of the local branch managers, who i spoke with today, and he said that the decision has been made to close the account and he doubts that me speaking with original branch manager is going to change anything based on the info he's gotten from efraud. Iowa branch manager said hold could take some time because they are investigating all the transactions made. There were 11 of them made over a four day period.
I was on the phone with local Washington state banker while on the phone with iowa branch manager through conversation. Washington state banker suggested for iowa branch manager to reach out and email original branch manager which he ended up doing. Other than suggesting that there's probably nothing the original branch manager can do and suggesting that it will may take sometime for investigation, that was the end of the conversation.
Looks like we're gonna have to wait till Tuesday.
Also this dude marcbago played two face, tried to give advice on here and went on to make fun of me and refers to me as a "ringleader of a laundering scheme." Definition of a Judas. Here's his post: https://old.reddit.com/Buttcoin/comments/gokp6n/user_is_shocked_to_find_their_bank_account_has/
submitted by browniverson400 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A reminder that Bitcoin ABC pushes for centralization where other wallet implementations push for collaboration and progress

Bitcoin ABC is one of several "clients" that you can connect to the Bitcoin Cash network with. Bitcoin ABC is not Bitcoin Cash and should never be referred to as the "reference" implementation that other wallets adhere to or follow.
Further, Amaury Sechet, a Bitcoin ABC developer, does not believe in decentralized development. He showed this during the IFP attempt when he tried to add his own personal BCH wallet address directly into the protocol as the recipient of a percentage of mining rewards .
This is the most absurd and arrogant thing I've ever seen anyone in this space try to do. It's so clearly a conflict of interest and a tragedy of the commons that I can't even believe people still listen to a single word he has to say. He has no respect here from older community members. His vision is that of a centralized banking cartel rather than peer-to-peer electronic cash system.
BCHN was a reaction to the IFP to give miners a drop-in replacement that they could run to invalidate Amaury's hostile take-over attack. This was a community-driven effort to defend against this attack and luckily it worked. A total crisis was barely averted.
If Amaury keeps trying to make changes that nobody else wants, all that will happen is that more miners and users will stop running Bitcoin ABC. There will be no "split" because no real BCH miner would continue putting electricity and "work" into a chain that is controlled by one person.
We've known that Amaury has been anti-BCH for some time now. He has prevented changes that speed up validation and allow for more scaling -- without any technical explanation or merit. He has attacked other wallet developers in an attempt to get his own project at the "top" rather than foster healthy innovation and collaboration. He has minions pushing his ideas on social media platforms (or maybe he just has a ton of reddit usernames). Remind you of another group? Bitcoin Core and most likely some state-driven actor trying to harm peer-to-peer electronic cash.
Bottom line: The attacks on peer-to-peer electronic cash continue, both on the social front and from attackers like Amaury who wiggled their way into more important roles. Amaury cannot be trusted and users supporting peer-to-peer electronic cash should use any of the other much better performing wallets or mining clients.
submitted by Annapurna317 to btc [link] [comments]

No, we don’t need to hire world-class developers - my response to ABC’s George Donnelly’s recent medium post

George Donnelly of ABC recently posted an article titled “Why We Need to Hire World-Class People Now” on Medium.
The ideas presented in the article are in line with ideas I’ve heard Amaury share before; I disagreed with them when Amaury first shared them, and I disagree with them again now that George is restating them as a curated Amaury point-of-view.
Here is the link to George’s post on Medium:
https://medium.com/bitcoin-abc/why-we-need-to-hire-world-class-people-now-17653f1f16dc
Below is my response:
No, we don’t need to hire world-class people.
What we actually need is to attract world-class skill, rather than hire.
What we need is to attract world-class startups with skilled technical founders and skilled developers.
What we need is to attract world-class applications and services with skilled mission-critical operation-teams who will ultimately cooperate and form a hive ready to respond to any immediate or long term threat or need.
What we need is to attract loyal users who demand quality services which will demand world-class skills.
What we need is to build and attract an eco-system which fosters this.
What we don’t need is another team of “world’s best developers” with a loyalty to a single group of decision makers: another Blockstream.
What we don’t need is another set of non-democratic leaders who are willing to enforce their proposals through back-dating spec updates in order to finance themselves while destroying the soundness of the very thing they’re supposedly here to build and protect.
I agree with the general idea about needing skill, but I absolutely disagree with having to “hire” such skill to a centralized entity, as we already saw that ABC which just barely made it to a reference client level (or miners’ preference) and they immediately became corrupt -in my opinion- through the introduction of the IFP.
We saw that with Blockstream, nChain, and now with ABC and we will absolutely see it with any entity that feels comfortable in their “leadership” position: absolute power corrupts absolutely.
You want skill? Funding? Community support? Eco-system? You must work to pull these things to you, not push them unto what you think Bitcoin is.
Because the second you push something which disagrees with what Bitcoin is, Bitcoin swiftly moves and pushes you right out the revolving door.
submitted by wisequote to btc [link] [comments]

Analyst 4 Factors Show Ethereum Can Rally Further After 180% Surge Crypto Kingdom CZ - Reference Blockchain Technology Explained (2 Hour Course) The Bitcoin Standard (Audiobook) by Saifedean Ammous Bitcoin Qu0026A CME Bitcoin Reference Rate

Automatically reference everything correctly with CiteThisForMe. Save your work forever, build multiple bibliographies, run plagiarism checks, and much more. Hello? Dear Traders, Nice to meet you. "Like" is a great power for me. By "following" you can always get new information quickly. Thank you for always supporting. ----- Around July 2nd (July 1st-3rd), it is necessary to check whether it can rise above the 9274 point or the downtrend line (3). We need to check if we can rise above the downtrend line (3) even if we cannot rise above the 9274 point. Bitcoin is a cryptographic currency based on ideas from Hashcash [3] and b-money [11] which aims to be completely distributed, free of central authorities or points of control, and at least somewhat anonymous. Rather than a detailed written speci cation, Bitcoin is de ned by a short white paper published under Start by hitting LIKE now and let's do an analysis of the EMA50 indicator on the daily timeframe for Bitcoin (BTCUSD). Back in April 2020, we predicted a "price jump" for Bitcoin based on the fact that EMA50, which was working as resistance at the time, continued to be challenged over and over. A block chain is a transaction database shared by all nodes participating in a system based on the Bitcoin protocol. A full copy of a currency's block chain contains every transaction ever executed in the currency. With this information, one can find out how much value belonged to each address at any point in history.. Every block contains a hash of the previous block.

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Analyst 4 Factors Show Ethereum Can Rally Further After 180% Surge

Referenční našich členů na prvním komunitním setkání. Děkujeme maximálně za podporu. Disclaimer: We are ambassadors or affiliates for many of the brands we reference on the channel. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases. Finance Disclaimer Blockchain Technology Course will cover: - Technology overview - Blockchain evolution - Decentralized web - Distributed organizations - Distributed ledger - Smart contracts - Distributed ... Bitcoin broke through a btc price resistance area overnight. ... *'The above video references an opinion and is for information purposes only. ... Trade Ideas Scanner Live Kelevra Trading 104 ... Play, WIN and have fun combining coins. My code: OX914R OX914R OX914R How to play? - Just touch two or more coins of the same reference Like: BITCOIN - BTC ETHEREUM - ETC LITECOIN - LTC USD Coin ...

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